Treaty of Ripon
The Treaty of Ripon was an agreement signed by Charles I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Scottish Covenanters on 26 October 1640, in the aftermath of the Second Bishops' War. The Covenanters were associated with the promotion and development of Presbyterianism as a form of church government, as opposed to Episcopacy, favoured by the crown.
The treaty was a major setback for Charles, and its terms were humiliating. It stipulated that Northumberland and County Durham were to be ceded to the Scots as an interim measure, that Newcastle was to be left in the hands of the Scots, and that Charles was to pay them £850 a day to maintain their armies there. Detailed negotiations between the two sides in London dragged well on into 1641.
This treaty was a factor leading to the calling of a session of Parliament, which is now known as the Long Parliament; this session was one of the major stepping stones to the outbreak of the First English Civil War.