Treaty of Rome (1924)
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The Treaty of Rome of January 27, 1924, was an agreement by which Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes agreed that Fiume would be annexed to Italy as the Province of Fiume, while the town of Sušak was assigned to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. According to the treaty, Fiume and Sušak would share joint administration of the port facilities. Today these two towns are part of Rijeka in Croatia.
Following a period of Fiume existing under Gabrielle D'Annunzio's Italian Regency of Carnaro, the Treaty of Rapallo from 1920 had created the independent Free State of Fiume. The Free State of Fiume was immediately recognized by other nation states, including the United States of America, France, and the United Kingdom. The state survived only one year de facto and four years de jure. The joint administration of the port was never created. On April 24, 1921, the first general elections for parliament elected President Riccardo Zanella, leader of the Autonomist Fiuman Movement. On March 3, 1922, a movement directed by fascist deputy Francesco Giunta forced Zanella to resign. On September 17, 1923, Gaetano Giardino, an Italian General, was sent by Benito Mussolini with the task of reinstating public order. In the meantime, negotiations started between Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to dissolve the Free State of Fiume.
All parties ratified the agreement in Rome on February 22, 1924, and it became effective the same day. It was registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on April 7, 1924.
With the Treaty of Rome, parts of the Treaty of Rapallo were revoked. The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes recognized the new state's sovereignty over the delta of the Rječina River, including the seaport of Porto Baross and the northern part of Fiume County. Italy was given the city of Fiume and some surrounding land, as well as a coastal corridor which connected it to the Italian mainland. The exact definition of the borders were the object of a joint commission, whose results were agreed upon on July 20, 1925 in the Treaty of Nettuno.
- League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 24, pp. 32–89.
- Accordi di Nettuno, Italia – Regno serbo-croato-sloveno, 20 luglio 1925