Treaty of Stolbovo

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1617, May 1. Gustav Adolf's ratification of Russia-Sweden peace (RGADA).jpg

The Treaty of Stolbovo is a peace treaty of 1617 that ended the Ingrian War, fought between Sweden and Russia.

After nearly two months of negotiations, representatives from Sweden and Russia met at the (now derelict) village of Stolbova, south of Lake Ladoga, on 27 February [O.S. 17 February] 1617.

From the outset, Sweden had gone into the negotiations with very high ambitions, with the hopes of fulfilling the old dream of making all Russian trade pass through Swedish territory. As a consequence of this ambition, the Swedes originally demanded far-reaching territorial gains into western Russia, including the important northern port of Arkhangelsk. At this point, however, James I of England sent a delegation to mediate, and so did the Dutch, mostly to make sure Arkhangelsk did not fall into Swedish hands, which would have made the extensive trade between Western Europe and Russia far more difficult. Arkhangelsk did not change hands in the resulting treaty, partly because of the Dutch and English efforts, but mostly because Russia finally managed to unite under one tsar, Michael Romanov. As word reached Russia that the Swedish war against Poland might soon be over, the Russians were quick to get negotiations going for real — knowing that they could not afford Sweden's renewal of the war effort on just one front.

In the resulting peace treaty, the tsar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus agreed to the following terms:

  • Sweden gained the province and fortress of Kexholm (Käkisalmi) (now Priozersk), south-west Karelia and the province of Ingria — including the fortress of Nöteborg, known as "the key to Finland" (now Shlisselburg, Russia)
  • Members of the upper classes in these conquered areas were allowed to migrate within 14 days, if they wished to, a right not granted to regular priests and farmers
  • Russia renounced all claims to Estonia and Livonia
  • Russia would pay Sweden war indemnities of 20,000 rubles[1]
  • Novgorod and other Swedish territorial gains during the war would be returned to Russia
  • Sweden had the right to keep all spoils of war collected before November 20, 1616
  • The Russian city of Gdov was to remain in Swedish hands until the peace had been confirmed and the borders fully established
  • Sweden recognized Michael Romanov as the rightful tsar of Russia, putting an end to further Swedish claims in Russia
  • Russia was allowed free trade at normal trade tariffs, making sure Sweden could not cripple Russia completely
  • Russia was allowed to establish merchant houses in Stockholm, Reval (Tallinn) and Viborg in exchange for Sweden being allowed to establish merchant houses in Novgorod, Pskov, and Moscow.

Gustavus Adolphus is known to have said about this treaty, which granted Sweden natural borders to Russia, partly in the form of Lake Ladoga and Lake Peipus: "jag hoppas att det skall bliva svårt för ryssen att hoppa över den bäcken" — "I hope it will be hard for the Russians to jump across that creek".

England is officially credited with brokering this peace, through their mediator John Mericke, though the Dutch efforts were also of great importance. After the war, the leader of the Dutch delegation, Reinoud van Brederode, was granted the title Baron and given the barony of Wesenberg (Rakvere) in Estonia by Gustavus Adolphus.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lincoln, W. Bruce (1981). Romanovs -Autocrats of All the Russias. Anchor Books. p. 33. ISBN 0385279086.