Treaty of Tafna
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The Treaty of Tafna was signed by both Abd-el-Kader and General Thomas Robert Bugeaud on May 30, 1837. This agreement was developed after French imperial forces sustained heavy losses and military reversals in Algeria. The terms of the treaty entailed Abd-el-Kader recognizing French imperial sovereignty in Africa. However, the price France had to pay for acquiring recognition entailed its secession of approximately two-thirds of Algeria to Abd-el-Kader (i.e. the provinces of Oran, Koléa, Médéa, Tlemcen and Algiers). As a result of the treaty, France was only able to maintain a few ports. The treaty was eventually broken by King Louis-Philippe in 1839, who ordered the occupation of Constantine, which led to more conflicts between Abd-el-Kader's forces and French imperial forces. Abd-el-Kader declared war again on October 15, 1839.
- An Account of Algeria, or the French Provinces in Africa, p. 116. The subsequent progress of the French army is well known: after meeting with many reverses, and sustaining with great bravery very severe losses, it obtained, by the treaty of Tafna, executed with Abd-el-Kader on 30th May 1837, an acknowledgment on his part of the sovereignty of France in Africa, with a definition of the limits of its dominion in the provinces of Oran and Algiers.
- An Account of Algeria, or the French Provinces in Africa. Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 115 – 126 (March 1839).