The Treaty of Tangiers was signed on October 1844, whereby Morocco officially recognized Algeria as part of the French Empire. The advent of the treaty came after the defeat of Morocco in the First Franco-Moroccan War (6–14 August 1844). A second treaty in 1860 forced Morocco to cede Sidi Ifni to the Spanish Empire .
- ^ "'Abd ar-Rasham". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.