Treaty of Titalia
The Treaty of Titalia was signed between the Chogyal (monarch) of Sikkim and the British East India Company. The treaty, which was negotiated by Captain Barre Latter in February 1817, guaranteed security of Sikkim by the British and returned Sikkimese land annexed by the Nepalese over the centuries. It followed the Anglo-Nepalese War, 1814-1816. In return, the British were given trading rights and rights of passage up to the Tibet frontier. The treaty was named after Titalia, a place in current-day West Bengal-Bihar border. In the Gazette of Sikkim, 1894 by H.H. Risley, it was written that "by the Treaty of Titalia, British India has assumed the position of Lord's paramount of Sikkim and a title to exercise a predominant influence in that State has remained undisputed."
TREATY, COVENANT or AGREEMENT entered into by CAPTAIN BARRE LATTER, AGENT on the part of HIS EXCELLENCY, the RIGHT HON’BLE, the EARL OF MOIRA, K.G., GOVERNOR GENERAL, etc., and by NAZIR CHAINA TENJIN and MACHA TEINBAH and LAMA DUCHIM LONGADOO, deputies on the part of the RAJAH OF SIKKIMPUTTEE being severally authorized and duly appointed for the above purposes - 1817.
ARTICLE I: The Honourable East India Company cedes, transfers and makes over in full sovereignty to the Sikkimputtee Rajah, his heirs or successors, all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the eastward of the Mechi river and to the westward of the Teesta river, formerly possessed by the Rajah of Nepaul but ceded to the Honourable East India company by the treaty of peace signed at Segoulee.
ARTICLE II: The Sikkimputtee Rajah engages for himself and successors to abstain from any acts of aggression or hostility against the Goorkhas or any other State.
ARTICLE lll: That he will refer to the arbitration of the British Government any dispute or question that may arise between his subjects and those of Nepaul or any other neighbouring State and to abide by the decision of the British Government.
ARTICLE IV: He engages for himself and successors to join the British troops with the whole of his military force when employed in the Hills and in general to afford the British troops every aid and facility in his power.
ARTICLE V: That he will not permit any British subject nor the subject of any European and American state to reside within his dominions, without the permission of the English-Government.
ARTICLE VI: That he will immediately seize and deliver up any dacoits or notorious offenders that right take refuge within his territories.
ARTICLE VII: That he will not afford protection to any defaulters of revenue or other delinquents when demanded by the British Government through their accredited agents.
ARTICLE VIII: That he will afford protection to merchants and traders from the Company’s province and he engages that no duty shall be levied on the transit of merchandise beyond the established custom at the several golah or marts.
ARTICLE IX: The Honourable East India Company guarantees to the Sikkimputtee Rajah and his successors, the full and peaceable possession of the tract of hilly country specified in the First Article of the present Agreement.
ARTICLE X: This treaty shall be ratified and exchanged by the Sikkimputtee Rajah within one month from the present date and the counterpart when confirmed by His Excellency, the Right Honourable the Governor-General, shall be transmitted to the Rajah.
Done at Titalia, this tenth day of February 1817 answering the 9th of Phagoon 1873 Sumbut and to the thirteenth of Maugh 1223 Bengallie.
Sd/- Barre Latter Sd/- Moira Sd/- Nazir Chaina Tenjin Sd/- N.B. Edmonstone Sd/- Macha Teinbah Sd/- Archd. Seton Sd/- Lama Duchim Longadoo Sd/- Geo. Dowedswell
Ratified by the Governor-General in Council at Fort William, this Fifteenth day of March, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Seventeen.
Sd/- J. Adam, Acting Chief Secretary to Government.
- A Lexicon of Vocabulary, Events and Treaties from India and Central Asia
- History of Sikkim – Government of Sikkim