Treaty of Villafáfila
The treaty recognised the incapacity of Ferdinand's daughter and Philip's wife, Joanna the Mad, to reign on her own as Queen of Castile. Joanna had succeeded her mother, Isabella the Catholic, who had appointed her husband and co-ruler Ferdinand as regent of Castile in the name of their mentally unstable daughter. However, Philip demanded his share in the government. The Treaty of Villafáfila followed the Treaty of Salamanca (24 November 1505), in which Ferdinand and Philip were recognised as co-regents in Joanna's name. However, the new treaty required Ferdinand to cede all power to Philip and retire to his own hereditary realms, the Crown of Aragon, to which Joanna was also heir presumptive, and proclaimed Philip jure uxoris King of Castile. Ferdinand renounced not only the government of Castile, but also the lordship of the Indies, leaving a half of the income of the kingdoms of the Indies. Joanna and Philip immediately added to their titles of "Kings of Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea".
The treaty was made moot very soon, since King Philip I died on 25 September. This left Ferdinand free to assume the government of Castile, and again return to the regency of the crown and recover the title of lordship of the Indies, both of which he held until his death in 1516.
The Indies remained in an ambiguous state from the death of Philip in 1506 to the death of Ferdinand in 1516, being half a personal property of the kings (a "lordship" with absolute power for its lord), and half a kingdom of the Crown (ruled under the laws of the Crown of Castile). From 1516 to 1520 the Indies were extraofficially part of the Crown of Castile. In July 9, 1520 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor incorporated them explicitly into the Crown of Castile and he forbid any future separation.
- Sánchez Prieto, Ana Belén (2004), La intitulación diplomática de los Reyes Católicos: un programa político y una lección de historia, III Jornadas Científicas Sobre Documentación en época de los Reyes Católicos (Dpto.de Ciencias y Técnicas Historiográficas. Universidad Complutense de Madrid): 294–296
- Sánchez Prieto 2004, pp. 294–296
- Lydia Fossa (2006), Narrativas problemáticas: los inkas bajo la pluma española, Lengua y sociedad 23, Fondo Editorial PUCP, pp. 104–105, ISBN 9789972511424
- Mario Hernández Sánchez-Barba (1990), La Monarquía Española y América: Un Destino Histórico Común, Libros de Historia/Rialp Series 32 (illustrated ed.), Ediciones Rialp, pp. 57–58, ISBN 9788432126307, "(...) que estarán y las tendremos como a cosa incorporada en ellas. (...) en ningún tiempo puedan ser sacadas, ni apartadas, ni enajenadas, (...)"