Treaty of Windsor (1386)
The Treaty of Windsor is the diplomatic alliance signed between Portugal and England on 9 May 1386 with the Treaty of Windsor and the marriage of King John I of Portugal (House of Aviz) with Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. With the victory at the Battle of Aljubarrota, John I was recognized as the undisputed King of Portugal, putting an end to the interregnum of the 1383–1385 Crisis. Recognition from Castile would arrive only in 1411, with the signature of the Treaty of Ayllón. The Treaty of Windsor established a pact of mutual support between the countries. This document is preserved at the Portuguese National Archives.
Historian Matthew Winsett says, "This treaty has been the cornerstone of both nations' relations with each other ever since."
In popular culture
In 1943 the Portuguese Government leased to Britain what became a major Allied air and naval base in the Portuguese islands, the Azores. Prime Minister Winston Churchill recounted reporting on the lease to the House of Commons:
"I have an announcement", I said, "to make to the House arising out of the treaty signed between this country and Portugal in the year 1373 between His Majesty King Edward III and King Ferdinand and Queen Eleanor of Portugal." I spoke in a level voice, and made a pause to allow the House to take in the date, 1373. As this soaked in there was something like a gasp. I do not suppose any such continuity of relations between two Powers has ever been, or will ever be, set forth in the ordinary day-to-day work of British diplomacy.
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- "Tratado de paz, amizade e confederação entre D. João I e Eduardo II, rei de Inglaterra, denominado Tratado de Windsor" (in Portuguese). Portuguese National Archives Digital Collection. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Winslett, Matthew (2008). The Nadir of Alliance: The British Ultimatum of 1890 and Its Place in Anglo-Portuguese Relations, 1147--1945. ProQuest. p. 3.
- "12 October 1943". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) (House of Commons). col. 716.
- Winston Churchill, Second World War, pp 146-7