Treaty of Zuhab

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The Treaty of Zuhab (Persian:قصرشیرین, also called Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin (Treaty of Kasr-ı Şirin)) was an accord signed between Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire on May 17, 1639.[1] The accord ended the war that had begun in 1623 and was the last conflict in almost 150 years of intermittent wars between the two states over territorial disputes. The treaty divided territories in West Asia, such as the permanent parting of the Caucasus between the two powers, in which Yerevan, eastern Georgia, Dagestan, and Azerbaijan stayed Persian, while western Georgia and most of Western Armenia came fully under Ottoman rule. It also included all of Mesopotamia (including Baghdad) being irreversibly ceded to the Ottomans. Nevertheless, border disputes between Persia and the Ottoman Empire did not end. Between 1555 and 1918, Persia and the Ottomans signed no less than 18 treaties that would re-address their disputed borders. The exact demarcation according to this treaty would not begin until the 19th century, essentially laying out the rough outline for the frontier between modern day Iran and the states of Turkey and Iraq (the former Ottoman-Persian border until 1918, when the Ottoman Empire lost its territories in the Middle East following their defeat in World War I.)


  1. ^ Somel, Selçuk Akşin, Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire, (Scarecrow Press Inc., 2003), 306.

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