Trebišov

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Coordinates: 48°37′40″N 21°43′02″E / 48.62778°N 21.71722°E / 48.62778; 21.71722
Trebišov
Town
Trebisov vlastivedne muzeum.jpg
A museum in Trebišov
Coat of arms
Country Slovakia
Region Košice
District Trebišov
Elevation 109 m (358 ft)
Coordinates 48°37′40″N 21°43′02″E / 48.62778°N 21.71722°E / 48.62778; 21.71722
Area 70.160 km2 (27.09 sq mi)
Population 23,152 (2005-12-31)
Density 330 / km2 (855 / sq mi)
First mentioned 1254
Mayor Marián Kolesár
Timezone CET (UTC+1)
 - summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 075 01
Area code +421-56
Car plate TV
Location of Trebišov in Slovakia
Location of Trebišov in Slovakia
Location of Trebišov in the Košice Region
Location of Trebišov in the Košice Region
Wikimedia Commons: Trebišov
Statistics: MOŠ/MIS
Website: www.trebisov.sk

Trebišov (Hungarian: Tőketerebes; German: Trebischau) is a small industrial town in the easternmost part of Slovakia, with a population of around 23,000. The town is an administrative, economic and cultural center with machine (Vagónka) and building materials industries.

History[edit]

The first archaeological findings are from the Neolithic. Tombs were found from the Otomani Culture of the early Bronze Age and the building structures from Hallstatt Culture from late Bronze Age.

The name of Trebišov is first mentioned in 1219 as Terebus, later in 1254 as Terebes, and in 1341 as Therebes, in 1441 the sources depict as Felse Terebes, Also Terebes (Upper and Lower Trebišov). The village is also mentioned in 1330, when it received town status for the first time. The castle and the village became one settlement in the 14th century.

The first written reference to the castle stems from 1254. This castle of Parič (Párics) stood at the border of the village. The village originally was established to serve the castle. The castle was built by "Terebesi" family from "Kaplyon" nobility. Károly Róbert has conquered the castle in 1317 during the fight with Petenye fia Péter and granted the land as gift to Fülöp Drugeth, the zupan of Spiš, but then returned to royal ownership in 1342, to the Zemplén county. After 1387 the castle was given by Sigismund of Luxemburg to Péter Perényi, who soon became a "robber knight". Mathias Corvinus has overtaken the castle in 1483 and given the castle to the son of the defeated knight. As the Ottomans were approaching in 1536, the castle was reinforced, and further in 1541. The Drugeth family took over the castle by marriage in 1567, but in 1619, Gábor Bethlen sieged and occupied it.

There is a record that in 1601 there were 31 populated and 94 non-populated houses in the settlement. The pálos religious order had monastery here between 1504 and 1530, and 1630-1781 which is still standing.

Even if the castle was again reinforced, the Austrian forces occupied it in 1675. In 1682 Thököly Imre captured it and then fled from continuous Austrian attacks, so they blew the castle up, since then it is in ruins. In 1692 Leopold I gave his rights on the property by a donation to Theresia Keglevich. From her descendants it came into the possession of the Csáky family. In 1786, the Csáky family was using the ruins to build another castle in the city.[1] This castle moved to the Andrássy family by marriage in 1838 and rebuilt it in Neorenaissance style.

In 1787 the population grew to 2366. In 1831 the city was the center of the cholera uprising, which was broken down with military on 5 August. In the 19th century the city was impacted by the waves of migration to America. The economy of the city improved in the beginning of the 20th century when several agricultural companies were established, such as a sugar processing company in 1910. In 1911, an electric power plant was built.

From the population of 4708 there were 2323 Hungarians and 2181 Slovak in 1910. In 1929 the city became capital of county.[clarification needed] During World War II the Slovak population supported the partisan groups. The city was occupied by the Soviet Army on 1 December 1944. In January 1945 the Slovak National Council was formed here. The population in 2001 was 22,342 people, of which 87% Slovak, 8.9% Gypsy and 1.7% Hungarian.

After the fall of Communism some factories in the region were shut down and the city became the site of a kind of ghetto[citation needed] for approximately 4,000 Romani people who moved in from the villages to be able to receive unemployment benefits. In the spring of 2004, in order to induce the unemployed in Slovakia to search for a job, the Slovak government immediately reduced all social benefits for long-term unemployed in Slovakia by half. This led to rioting among the Trebišov Roma population in which several shops were looted. The riot leaders claimed the Roma were starving. After three days riot police and army motorized infantry reestablished order using a water cannon against a stone-throwing[citation needed] crowd. In an attempt to calm down the situation, the government offered free firewood collection opportunity and free food stamps to compensate the unemployed for the loss of monetary aid.[2]

Noteworthy structures[edit]

  • Parič Castle ruins – built 1786 using stones of a water castle from the 13th century, with:
    • a National History and Geography Museum – in the castle
    • a park – once one of the prettiest parks in Austria-Hungary, contains remnants of the old water castle (13th century - 1786)
  • Andrássy Mausoleum – a nice neo-Gothic mausoleum of 1896
  • Catholic church – c. 1400, Gothic, reconstructed in 1696
  • Pauline monastery – 1502, connected with the Catholic Church
  • Orthodox church – 1825
  • manor house – 1786, adapted in the Empire – neo-Renaissance style

Roman-Catholic Church of Virgin Mary's Annunciation[edit]

The church has been dated already in 1404. It belongs to the Gothic architecture. The church has the main part and the aisle chapels. The interior is composed of the altars, mural paintings and a triumphal arch. On the ceiling, there are painted scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary. In the church there are set two marble epitaphs of János and Imre Perényi, pictures The Virgin Mary's Annunciation (1780), Saint Pavel Hermit (18th century), Saint Justin Martyr (1835), a stone baptistery (18th century) and the pseudo-Rococo seat. Under the church, there are crypts of the Pereny's family and Péter Szapáry and Júlia Csáky.

Pauline Monastery[edit]

It was built in 1502 and two years later, Imre Perenyi invited the Pauline-monks to the monastery. The object of the Renaissance monastery in the shape of "L" has been linked right to the church with the south wing. The monastery has been reconstructed, in 1678 and in 1760. With the cancellation of the Pauliny's in 1786 by King Joseph II., the monastery has lost its original function and has been used for many purposes. Now, it houses the Basic School of Arts and the Roman Catholic Parsonage Office.

Immaculata[edit]

The Immaculata is a work of art of an unknown sculptor. It has been made around 1800. There are three statues: The main is Madonna trampling on a snake; on her right there is a statue of St. John of Nepomuk; on her left a statue of the patron and protector from fire, St. Florian. At present, it is placed in its third place. Originally it was placed in front of the manor house. Later, in 1907, it was placed south of the church, on the edge of the city park. In the 1980s, it has been restored and placed between the Roman- and Greek-Catholic churches.

Mausoleum of the Andrássy family
Immaculata

Greek-Catholic Church of Virgin Mary's Ascension[edit]

The headstone of the church was put in 1817. It was built by the architect József Turcsány during the years 1818–1825. It was dedicated in 1826. In 1886 its interior was rebuilt. There are a lot of icons: The Death of Virgin Mary, icons of Jesus Christ, St. Nicholas, Twelve Apostles, Virgin Mary and John the Baptist. In 1901 the temple got the sacristy, the art lustre, the ceramic paving and the art windows in 1907. In the 1920s it got the bell called "Georgij" (George).

Ruins of Parič Castle[edit]

The first stage of the construction of the water castle (probably a dwelled tower with fortifications) can be dated into the time from 12th to 13th centuries. Founded parts of pottery confirm that. The upper polygonal construction made by stone-based bricks was built in the second stage of construction, in the beginning of 14th century. The research confirmed that simultaneously with the fortification on the western side, an early-Gothic palace was built. On the east side of the castle a quadrangle entrance tower was built and at the courtyard was a well, fortified by stone.

The Trebišov Park[edit]

The Park of Trebišov takes an area of 62 ha. The Park has been originally shaped from a swamp-mire forest. The Park layout began its realization at the end of 18th century. It grew as an English countryside forest with buttonwoods and other trees imported from around the world. Today, the Park serves for relax, recreation, cultural and social events, and as a historical-archaeological place. In the area of the Park there are, except the exciting fauna and flora, some historical monuments.

Church of the Holy Spirit[edit]

It belongs to the oldest sacral reminders of Trebišov. Its foundations were found by chance in the Centre of Young Natural Scientists in Trebišov. Its existence confirmed the records of Popes Corporals made in 1332–1337. The archaeological research shows, that the church had a rectangular boat. In 65 bone graves this dead were buried on their backs without coffins and mostly without gifts. Jewels, parts of clothing and coins were found in 16 graves. They were: earrings, rings, Hungarian coins from second half of 12th century and first third of 13th century, 3 cast bronze crucifixes, which belonged probably to the East Church (Kyjevská Rus). Based on these discoveries, the church can be dated back into the first half of 13th century and its extension round 1400.

Ruins of Parič (Párics) Castle in the Trebišov park
Trebišov park in the autumn months

Mausoleum of The Andrássy Family in The Town Park[edit]

The Mausoleum is one of the most beautiful monuments in Trebišov. It was built in the neo-Gothic style in 1893 by the German architect Arthur Meinig. The sarcophagus is a work of the Hungarian sculptor György Zala from the years 1893–1895. In the Mausoleum there is buried the count Gyula Andrássy from 1894, the prime minister of Austria-Hungary (1867). In the sarcophagus there are relicts of his wife Katalin Andrássy. Above the sarcophagus there are two bronze cartouches with the signs of the count and his wife. Beside that there is the tinny coffin of Tódor Andrássy (1857–1905). Their souls are protected by the sculpture of an angel. Near the sarcophagus sorrows the bronze sculpture of Helena, the wife of the count Lajos Batthyány. In the interior there are the starry vault and the neo-Gothic windows.

National History Museum[edit]

In 1786 the count Imre Csáky started building a great Baroque castle. The three-winged castle has a ground-plan form U. The terrace is supported by eight Classicistic pillars. In the Baroque gable there are signs of the Families Csáky and Andrássy. The castle has a great French garden with a fountain and a labyrinth. From 1916, in the castle there were military barracks and after The Second World War there was a hospital. Today the castle is used as the National History Museum.

Parts[edit]

  • Nový Majer
  • Olšina
  • Trebišov proper

Famous people[edit]

Twin towns[edit]

Trebišov is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Das Königreich Ungarn: Ein topograph.-hist.-statistisches Rundgemälde, d. Ganze dieses Landes in mehr denn 12,400 Artikeln umfassend, Band 3, Seite 271, J.C. von Thiele, 1833.
  2. ^ Slovak president alarmed at riots, bbc.co.uk, February 24, 2004
  3. ^ "Jasło Official Website - "Współpraca Międzynarodowa Jasła" (Jasło's Twin Towns)". Flag of Poland.svg(in Polish) © 2008 Urząd Miasta w Jaśle. Retrieved 2008-10-23. 

External links[edit]