Trebinje

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For other places with the same name, see Trebinje (disambiguation).
Trebinje
Требиње
Skyline of Trebinje
Coat of arms of Trebinje
Coat of arms
Location of Trebinje within Republika Srpska
Location of Trebinje within Republika Srpska
Coordinates: 42°42′43″N 18°20′46″E / 42.712°N 18.346°E / 42.712; 18.346Coordinates: 42°42′43″N 18°20′46″E / 42.712°N 18.346°E / 42.712; 18.346
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
Entity Republika Srpska
Settlements 178 (2008.)
Government
 • Mayor Slavko Vučurević [1]
Area
 • City 854,5 km2 (3,299 sq mi)
Population (2013 Census)
 • City 25,589
 • Density 36,8/km2 (950/sq mi)
 • Urban 31,433
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Area code(s) 59
Website [2]

Trebinje (Cyrillic: Требиње) is the southernmost municipality and city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is a part of the Republika Srpska entity and is located in southeastern Herzegovina, some 20 km from the Adriatic Sea. The city was first mentioned in the 10th century.

Geography[edit]

Trebinje town and valley

The city lies in the Trebišnjica river valley in southeastern Herzegovina, some 30 km (19 mi) by road from Dubrovnik, Croatia, on the Adriatic coast. There are several mills along the river, as well as several bridges, including three in the city of Trebinje itself, as well as a historic Ottoman Arslanagic bridge nearby. The river is heavily exploited for hydro-electric energy. After it passes through the Popovo Polje area southwest of the city, the river - which always floods in the winter - naturally runs underground to the Adriatic, near Dubrovnik. For Trebinje is said that it is "the city of the sun and platan trees", and it is one of the most beautiful cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The city is economic and cultural center of the region of Eastern Herzegovina.

Climate[edit]

Trebinje enjoys a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification) with short warm winters and long blazing summers. Trebinje is one of the warmest in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The average annual temperature in the city is 16.6 °C (1981–2012) and the average January temperature is 8.3 °C, while the July temperature is 26.5 °C. Snow is very rare. In the summer, daytime temperatures are around 35 °C - 38 °C and in winter the temperature rarely drops below 0 °C. The highest recorded temperature was 42.5 °C on 22 July 2007. And the lowest recorded temperature was -8 °C on 14 January 1968. The climate is favorable for the cultivation of tangerine, orange, lemon, olives, grapefruit and many other subtropical plants including many species of palm trees. Its climate is similar to that of the city of Dubrovnik, Croatia.

Climate data for Trebinje (Records from 1966 to 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.5
(72.5)
23
(73)
26.5
(79.7)
32.5
(90.5)
36
(97)
40.5
(104.9)
42.5
(108.5)
42
(108)
40.5
(104.9)
35
(95)
26
(79)
23
(73)
42.5
(108.5)
Average high °C (°F) 11.2
(52.2)
11.3
(52.3)
14.4
(57.9)
17.9
(64.2)
22.3
(72.1)
26.2
(79.2)
30.3
(86.5)
30.3
(86.5)
25.4
(77.7)
20.4
(68.7)
16.6
(61.9)
12.4
(54.3)
19.89
(67.79)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
8.5
(47.3)
11.4
(52.5)
14.9
(58.8)
18.7
(65.7)
22.5
(72.5)
26.5
(79.7)
26.5
(79.7)
22.0
(71.6)
17.3
(63.1)
13.5
(56.3)
9.5
(49.1)
16.63
(61.93)
Average low °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
5.6
(42.1)
8.5
(47.3)
11.9
(53.4)
15.2
(59.4)
18.8
(65.8)
22.7
(72.9)
22.7
(72.9)
18.7
(65.7)
14.2
(57.6)
10.5
(50.9)
6.5
(43.7)
13.4
(56.13)
Record low °C (°F) −8
(18)
−7.5
(18.5)
−4.5
(23.9)
2.5
(36.5)
8.5
(47.3)
10.5
(50.9)
14.5
(58.1)
14.5
(58.1)
10
(50)
4.5
(40.1)
−1.5
(29.3)
−6
(21)
−8
(18)
Precipitation mm (inches) 195.2
(7.685)
189.2
(7.449)
132.7
(5.224)
110.9
(4.366)
76.1
(2.996)
48.6
(1.913)
24.1
(0.949)
28.0
(1.102)
98.7
(3.886)
169.9
(6.689)
265.0
(10.433)
225.3
(8.87)
1,563.7
(61.562)
Avg. precipitation days 12.2 12.9 11.6 10.2 9.5 6.7 2.4 2.5 6.4 10.3 15.3 13.5 113.5
 % humidity 74 73 70 67 65 59 52 55 59 67 75 73 65.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 127.1 130.5 155.0 186.0 251.1 294.0 356.5 347.2 261.0 204.6 138.0 112.2 2,563.2
Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)[2]

Settlements[edit]

The city of Trebinje has a total of 178 settlements according to the 1991 census.

Aranđelovo, Arbanaška, Arslanagića Most, Baljivac, Baonine, Begović Kula, Belenići, Bihovo, Bijelač, Bijograd, Bioci, Bobovišta, Bodiroge, Bogojević Selo, Borlovići, Brani Do, Brova, Budoši, Bugovina, Cerovac, Cicina, Cicrina, Čavaš, Čopice, Čvaljina, Čvarići, Desin Selo, Diklići, Djedići, Do, Dobromani, Dodanovići, Dolovi, Domaševo, Donja Kočela, Donje Čičevo, Donje Grančarevo, Donje Vrbno, Donji Orahovac, Dračevo, Dražin Do, Drijenjani, Dubljani, Dubočani, Duži, Dvrsnica, Glavinići, Glavska, Gojšina, Gola Glavica, Golubinac, Gomiljani, Gornja Kočela, Gornje Čičevo, Gornje Grančarevo, Gornje Vrbno, Gornji Orahovac, Gorogaše, Grab, Grbeši, Grbići, Grebci, Grkavci, Grmljani, Hum, Ivanica, Janjač, Jasen, Jasenica Lug, Jazina, Jušići, Kalađurđevići, Kijev Do, Klikovići, Klobuk, Konjsko, Korlati, Kotezi, Kovačina, Kraj, Krajkovići, Kremeni Do, Krnjevići, Kučići, Kunja Glavica, Kutina, Lapja, Lastva, Lokvice, Lomači, Lug, Lušnica, Ljekova, Ljubovo, Marić Međine, Mesari, Mionići, Morče, Mosko, Mrkonjići, Mrnjići, Necvijeće, Nenovići, Nevada, Nikontovići, Ograde, Orah, Orahov Do, Orašje Popovo, Orašje Površ, Orašje Zubci, Parojska Njiva, Petrovići, Pijavice, Podosoje, Podstrašivica, Podštirovnik, Podvori, Poljice Čičevo, Poljice Popovo, Prhinje Pridvorci, Prosjek, Rapti Bobani, Rapti Zupci, Rasovac, Ravno, Rupni Do, Sedlari, Skočigrm, Slavogostići, Slivnica Bobani, Slivnica Površ, Sparožići, Staro Slano, Strujići, Šarani, Šćenica Bobani, Šćenica Ljubomir, Taleža, Todorići, Trebijovi, Trebimlja, Trebinje, Trnčina, Tuli, Tulje, Turani, Turica, Turmenti, Tvrdoš, Ubla, Ugarci, Ukšići, Uskoplje, Uvjeća, Veličani, Velja Gora, Velja Međa, Vladušići, Vlaka, Vlasače, Vlaška, Volujac, Vrpolje Ljubomir, Vrpolje Zagora, Vučija, Vukovići, Začula, Zagora, Zagradinje, Zaplanik, Zavala, Zgonjevo, Žakovo, Ždrijelovići, Željevo and Župa.

Trebinje is one of two municipalities that were created from the former Yugoslavian municipality of Trebinje of the 1991 census, the other being Ravno in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

History[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

The toponym Trebinje is first attested in De Administrando Imperio by Constantine VII (905-959), when describing the geography of the Serbs. Travunia (Τερβουνια) was a province of the Serbian Principality under the Vlastimirović dynasty. The first known office holder was Beloje, a count, who ruled under Prince Vlastimir (also possibly under Radoslav or Prosigoj, fl. 819). In the mid-9th century, Vlastimir married his daughter to Krajina, the son of Beloje, and gave him the Župa of Trebinje to govern under his suzerainty. The Belojević noble family was entitled to rule Travunia; Hvalimir, and his son Čučimir, continued the office under the Serbian crown.

The town commanded the road from Raguša to Constantinople, which was traversed in 1096 by Raymond of Toulouse and his crusaders. Under the name of Tribunia or Travunja (the Trebigne of the Ragusans), it belonged to the Serbian Empire until 1355. Trebinje became a part of the expanded Medieval Bosnian state under Tvrtko I in 1373. There is a medieval tower in Gornje Police whose construction is often attributed to Vuk Branković. The old Tvrdoš Monastery dates back to the 15th century.

Arslanagić bridge.

In 1482, together with the rest of Herzegovina (see: Herzog Stjepan Vukčić Kosača), the town was captured by the Ottoman Empire. The Old Town-Kastel was built by Turks on the location of the medieval fortress of Ban Vir, on the western bank of the Trebišnjica River. The city walls, the Old Town square, and two mosques were built in the beginning of the 18th century by the Resulbegović family. The 16th-century Arslanagić bridge (or Perovica bridge[citation needed]) was originally built at the village of Arslanagić, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) north of the town, by Mehmed-Paša Sokolović, and was run by Arslanagić family for centuries. The Arslanagić Bridge is one of the most attractive Ottoman-era bridges in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has two large and two small semicircular arches.

Modern[edit]

Coat of Arms of Trebinje during the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

During the period of Austro-Hungarian administration (1878–1918), several fortifications were built on the surrounding hills, and there was a garrison based in the town. The imperial administrators also modernized the town, expanding it westwards, building the present main street, as well as several squares, parks, schools, tobacco plantations, etc.

Trebinje grew rapidly in the era of Josip Broz Tito's Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between 1945 and 1990. It especially developed its hydroelectric potential with dams, artificial lakes, tunnels, and hydroelectric plants. This industrial development brought a large increase in the urban population of Trebinje.

Bosnian War[edit]

Trebinje was the largest town in Serb-held eastern Herzegovina during the Bosnian War. It was controlled by Bosnian Serb forces from the fall of 1991, and was used as a major command and artillery base by Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) troops besieging the Croatian town of Dubrovnik. In 1992 Trebinje was declared the capital of the self-proclaimed Serbian Autonomous Region of Herzegovina (Serbian: Српска аутономна област Херцеговина). Many of the town's Bosniak residents were subsequently conscripted to fight with the JNA, and as many as 500 fighting-age Bosniak men fled the region in order to avoid being drafted.[3] Ten of the town's mosques were razed to the ground during the war.[4]

Culture[edit]

Gračanica, a Serbian Orthodox monastery located on the Crkvina Hill overlooking the town.

The Serbian Orthodox church in Trebinje, Saborna Crkva, was built between 1888 and 1908. The Hercegovačka Gračanica monastery, an exact copy of the Gračanica monastery in Kosovo, was completed in 2000. The churches are located above the city, on the historic Crkvina Hill. The 15th-century Tvrdoš monastery is located two kilometres south-west of Trebinje, including a church which dates back to the late antiquity. Trebinje is home to the Catholic Cathedral of the Birth of Mary in the city center, near the famous Platan trees of Trebinje. There are also monuments dedicated to acclaimed poets Petar II Petrović-Njegoš and Jovan Dučić. The Osman-Paša Resulbegović mosque, located in the Old Town, was originally built in 1726 and fully rebuilt in 2005. The Old Town city walls are well preserved. The Arslanagić Bridge (1574) is located 1 km north of the town center.

Sports[edit]

The local football club, FK Leotar Trebinje, plays in the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Transportation[edit]

In late 2009 the Government of Republika Srpska approved funding for the Trebinje airport project. The airport was intended to serve as a low cost alternative to Dubrovnik.[5] The airport was intended to be operational in 2010 and then delayed till 2011. The terminal was planned to handle 260,000 passengers annually. In January 2013 the Minister for Transport and Infrastructure for Republika Srpska, Nedeljko Cubrilovic, announced that the passenger numbers doubled in 2012 from the prior year.[6] This is despite the airport not having been built. Over 820,000 euros have been spent on the project, mostly on documentation.

Municipality[edit]

Census year Total Serbs Bosniaks Yugoslavs Others
1971 29,024 19,362 (66.71%) 4,846 (16.69%) 424 (1.46%) 1,042 (3.60%)
1981 30,372 18,123 (59.67%) 4,405 (14.50%) 4,154 (13.67%) 1,381 (4.54%)
1991 30,996 21,349 (68.87%) 5,571 (17.97%)

City (itself)[edit]

Census year Total Serbs Bosniaks Yugoslavs Others
1991 21,870 14,915 (68.19%) 4,228 (19.33%) 347 (1.58%) 910 (4.18%)

Notable people[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ [1][dead link]
  2. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Trebinje". United Nations. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  3. ^ Human Rights Watch 1993, p. 382.
  4. ^ Bose 2002, p. 156.
  5. ^ "Trebinje to get airport in 2010". Limun.hr. Retrieved 2013-11-23. 
  6. ^ "EX-YU Aviation News: “Trebinje Airport doubles passenger numbers”". Exyuaviation.blogspot.com. 2013-02-01. Retrieved 2013-11-23. 

References[edit]

Print[edit]

External links[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.