Trecena

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The original page 13 of the Codex Borbonicus, showing the 13th trecena of the Aztec sacred calendar. This 13th trecena was under the auspices of the goddess Tlazolteotl, who is shown on the upper left wearing a flayed skin, giving birth to Cinteotl. The 13 day-signs of this trecena, starting with 1 Earthquake, 2 Flint/Knife, 3 Rain, etc., are shown on the bottom row and the column along the right side.

A trecena is a 13-day period used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican calendars. The 260-day calendar (the tonalpohualli) was divided into 20 trecenas. Trecena is derived from the Spanish chroniclers and translates to "a group of thirteen" in the same way that a dozen (or in Spanish docena) relates to the number twelve. It is associated with the Aztecs, but is called different names in the calendars of the Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, and others of the region.

Many surviving Mesoamerican codices, such as Codex Borbonicus, are divinitory calendars, based on the 260-day year, with each page representing one trecena.


n.º Trecena Aztec deities associated
1 1 Cipactli Tonacatecuhtli
2 1 Ehecatl Quetzalcoatl
3 1 Calli Tepeyollotl, Quetzalcoatl
4 1 Cuetzpallin Huehuecoyotl or Macuilxochitl
5 1 Coatl Chalchiuhtlicue and Tlazolteotl
6 1 Miquiztli Tonatiuh and Tecuciztecatl
7 1 Mazatl Tlaloc and Chicomecoatl o 4 Ehécatl
8 1 Tochtli Mayahuel and Xochipilli or Cinteotl
9 1 Atl Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli or Xiuhtecuhtli
10 1 Itzcuintli Mictlantecuhtli
11 1 Ozomatli Patecatl and Cuauhtliocelotl
12 1 Malinalli Itztlacoliuhqui
13 1 Acatl Tezcatlipoca or Uactli and Ixcuina or Tlazolteotl
14 1 Ocelotl Tlazolteotl
15 1 Cuauhtlil Xipe Totec and Quetzalcoatl
16 1 Cozcacuauhtli Itzpapalotl
17 1 Ollin Xolotl and Tlalchitonatiuh or 4 Ollin
18 1 Tecpatl Chalchiuhtototl
19 1 Quiahuit Tonatiuh
20 1 Xóchitl Xochiquetzal and Tezcatlipoca

See also[edit]