Tree breeding is the application of genetic, reproductive biology and economics principles to the genetic improvement and management of forest trees. In contrast to the selective breeding of livestock, arable crops, and horticultural flowers over the last few centuries, the breeding of trees, with the exception of fruit trees, is a relatively recent occurrence.
A typical forest tree breeding program starts with selection of superior phenotypes (plus trees) in a natural or planted forest. This application of mass selection improves the mean performance of the forest. Offspring is obtained from selected trees and grown in test plantations that act as genetic trials. Based on such tests the best genotypes among the parents can be selected. Selected trees are typically multiplied by either seeds or grafting and seed orchards are established when the preferred output is improved seed. Alternatively, the best genotypes can be directly propagated by cuttings or in-vitro methods and used directly in clonal plantations. The first system is frequently used in pines and other conifers, while the second is typical in some broadleaves (poplars, eucalypts and others). The objectives of a tree breeding program range from yield improvement and adaptation to particular conditions, to pest- and disease-resistance, wood properties, etc. Currently, tree breeding starting to take advantage of the fast development in plant genetics and genomics.
Tree breeders make efforts to get their operation efficient by optimising tree breeding. Scientists develop tools aimed at improvement of the efficiency of tree breeding programmes. Optimising can mean adapting strategies and methods to certain species, group of populations, structure of genetic variation and mode of inheritance of the important traits to obtain the highest benefit per unit of time. Optimising is usually carried out at the following levels: breeding strategy (appropriate intensity of breeding, breeding population structure and size, plan for maintenance of genetic diversity), breeding methods (mating type, testing and selection methods, testing population size and time) and deployment methods of the genetically improved material (seed orchards and clonal forestry: genetic contribution, size). Computer simulators are frequently used: stochastic – based on defined and random algorithms; and deterministic – based on defined algorithms.
Selection strategies have been compared for annual progress in long-term breeding at a given annual cost considering genetic gain, gene diversity, cost components, and time components. For Norway spruce it seems favourable to clone full sib families and then select based on clonal performance while for Scots pine a two-stage strategy seems best, first phenotypic pre-selection and then progeny-testing the selections.
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- Danusevičius D & Lindgren D 2002. Efficiency of Selection Based on Phenotype, Clone and Progeny Testing in Long-term Breeding. Silvae Genetica 51:19-26.
- Danusevičius D & Lindgren D 2002. Two-stage selection strategies in tree breeding considering gain, diversity, time and cost. Forest Genetics. 9:145-157.
- White, T.L., Adams, W.T. and Neale, D.B. 2007. Forest Genetics, CABI. ISBN 978-0-85199-348-5
- 2007 Gösta Eriksson, Inger Ekberg and David Clapham. An Introduction to Forest Genetics. ISBN 91-576-7190-7 
- 1984. Applied Forest Tree Improvement. Bruce Zobel, John Talbert, North Carolina State University, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, ISBN 0-471-09682-2