Trematosauroidea

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Trematosauroidea
Temporal range: Early Triassic - Middle Jurassic, 249.7–161.2Ma
Trematosaurus1DB.jpg
Trematosaurus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: "Amphibia" (wide sense)
Order: Temnospondyli
Suborder: Stereospondyli
Clade: Trematosauria
Superfamily: Trematosauroidea
Watson, 1919
Genera and Families

Trematosauroidea are an important group of Triassic Temnospondyl amphibians. They flourished briefly during the Early Triassic, occurring worldwide before declining at the start of the Middle Triassic, although the group continued until the Late Triassic. They were medium-sized temnospondyls with wedge-shaped tails, narrow skulls, and, in advanced forms, elongated snouts. The latter feature was probably an adaptation for feeding on fish. The largest and most specialized family, the Trematosauridae, are the only amphibians to have adapted to a marine life-style with the exception of the modern Crab-eating frog.

A temnospondyl ilium was described in 2004 from the Callovian Toutunhe Formation in the Junggar Basin of China. Although the isolated bone was impossible to identify on the species level, it was referred to Trematosauroidea. The presence of this bone in the Toutunhe Formation extends the range of trematosauroids into the Middle Jurassic, making it one of only three groups of temnospondyls that survived the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event (the other two being the Brachyopoidea and possibly the Capitosauria).[1]

Classification[edit]

Below is a cladogram modified from Schoch (2011):[2]

Stereospondyli 

Uranocentrodon




Lydekkerina





Rhytidosteidae



Brachyopomorpha

Siderops



Batrachosuchus



Plagiosauroidea

Laidleria




Plagiosuchus



Gerrothorax







Capitosauria


Trematosauroidea

Lyrocephaliscus




Trematolestes





Inflectosaurus




Microposaurus



Jordan taxon






Almasaurus




Callistomordax



Metoposaurus











References[edit]

  1. ^ Maisch, M.W.; Matzke, A.T.; and Sun, G. (2004). "A relict trematosauroid (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) from the Middle Jurassic of the Junggar Basin (NW China)". Naturwissenschaften 91 (12): 589–593. doi:10.1007/s00114-004-0569-x. 
  2. ^ Schoch, R.R. (2011). "A trematosauroid temnospondyl from the Middle Triassic of Jordan". The Fossil Record 14 (2): 119–127. doi:10.1002/mmng.201100002. 

External links[edit]