Trenton, New Jersey

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Trenton, New Jersey
City
City of Trenton
Downtown Trenton on the Delaware River
Downtown Trenton on the Delaware River
Flag of Trenton, New Jersey
Flag
Nickname(s): Capitol City, Turning Point of the Revolution.
Motto: "Trenton Makes, The World Takes"
Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County. Inset: Location of Mercer County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County. Inset: Location of Mercer County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Trenton, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Trenton, New Jersey
Coordinates: 40°13′25″N 74°45′50″W / 40.223748°N 74.764001°W / 40.223748; -74.764001Coordinates: 40°13′25″N 74°45′50″W / 40.223748°N 74.764001°W / 40.223748; -74.764001[1][2]
Country United States
State New Jersey
County Mercer
Incorporated November 13, 1792
Named for William Trent
Government[5]
 • Type Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)
 • Mayor Eric Jackson
 • Administrator Sam Hutchinson[3]
 • clerk Richard Kuchmar[4]
Area[2]
 • Total 8.155 sq mi (21.122 km2)
 • Land 7.648 sq mi (19.809 km2)
 • Water 0.507 sq mi (1.313 km2)  6.21%
Area rank 229th of 566 in state
9th of 13 in county[2]
Elevation[6] 49 ft (15 m)
Population (2010)[7][8][9]
 • Total 84,913
 • Estimate (2012[10]) 84,477
 • Rank 10th of 566 in state
2nd of 13 in county[11]
 • Density 11,101.9/sq mi (4,286.5/km2)
 • Density rank 26th of 566 in state
1st of 13 in county[11]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 08608-08611, 08618-08620, 08625, 08628, 08629, 08638, 08641, 08648, 08650, 08690, 08691[12][13]
Area code(s) 609[14]
FIPS code 3402174000[15][2][16]
GNIS feature ID 0885421[17][2]
Website www.trentonnj.org

Trenton is the capital city of the State of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County.[18][19] The city is officially considered to be within the Greater New York City Combined Statistical Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913,[7][8][9] making it the state's 10th-largest municipality. The Census Bureau estimated that the city's population was 84,899 in 2011.[20]

Trenton dates back at least to June 3, 1719, when mention was made of a constable being appointed for Trenton, while the area was still part of Hunterdon County. Boundaries were recorded for Trenton Township as of March 2, 1720,[21] a courthouse and jail were constructed in Trenton around 1720 and the Freeholders of Hunterdon County met annually in Trenton.[22] Trenton became New Jersey's capital as of November 25, 1790, and the City of Trenton was formed within Trenton Township on November 13, 1792. Trenton Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. Portions of the township were taken on February 22, 1834, to form Ewing Township. On April 10, 1837, Trenton Township was dissolved and became part of Trenton city. A series of annexations took place over a 50-year period, with the city absorbing South Trenton borough (April 14, 1851), portions of Nottingham Township (April 14, 1856), both the Borough of Chambersburg Township and Millham Township (both on March 30, 1888), as well as Wilbur Borough (February 28, 1898).[21]

History[edit]

The surrender of the Hessians at Trenton, 1776
The Old Barracks in Trenton, New Jersey

The first settlement which would become Trenton was established by Quakers in 1679, in the region then called the Falls of the Delaware, led by Mahlon Stacy from Handsworth, Sheffield, England. Quakers were being persecuted in England at this time and North America provided the perfect opportunity to exercise their religious freedom.

By 1719, the town adopted the name "Trent-towne", after William Trent, one of its leading landholders who purchased much of the surrounding land from Stacy's family. This name later was shortened to "Trenton".[23]

During the American Revolutionary War, the city was the site of the Battle of Trenton, George Washington's first military victory. On December 26, 1776, Washington and his army, after crossing the icy Delaware River to Trenton, defeated the Hessian troops garrisoned there.[24] After the war, Trenton was briefly the national capital of the United States in November and December 1784.[25] The city was considered as a permanent capital for the new country, but the southern states favored a location south of the Mason-Dixon Line.

Trenton became the state capital in 1790, but prior to that year the Legislature often met here.[26] The town was incorporated in 1792.

During the War of 1812, the primary hospital facility for the U.S. Army was at a temporary location on Broad Street.

Throughout the 19th Century, Trenton grew steadily, as Europeans came to work in its pottery and wire rope mills. In 1837, with the population now too large for government by council, a new mayoral government was adopted, with by-laws that remain in operation to this day.[27]

Geography[edit]

The "Falls of the Delaware" at Trenton

Trenton is located at 40°13′25″N 74°45′50″W / 40.223748°N 74.764001°W / 40.223748; -74.764001 (40.223748,-74.764001). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 8.155 square miles (21.122 km2), of which, 7.648 square miles (19.809 km2) of it is land and 0.507 square mile (1.313 km2) of it (6.21%) is water.[1][2]

Several bridges across the Delaware River — the Trenton-Morrisville Toll Bridge, Lower Trenton Bridge and Calhoun Street Bridge – connect Trenton to Morrisville, Pennsylvania, all of which are operated by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission.[28]

Trenton is located in almost the exact geographic center of the state (the official geographic center is 5 miles (8.0 km) southeast of Trenton).[29] Due to this, it is sometimes included as part of North Jersey and as the southernmost city of the Tri-State Region. Others consider it a part of South Jersey and thus, the northernmost city of the Delaware Valley.

Trenton has long been part of the Philadelphia television market. However, following the 2000 United States Census, Trenton was shifted from the Philadelphia metropolitan statistical area to the New York metropolitan statistical area. With a similar shift by the New Haven, Connecticut, area to the New York area, they were the first two cases where metropolitan statistical areas differed from their defined Nielsen television markets.[30] However, Mercer County constitutes its own metropolitan statistical area, formally known as the Trenton-Ewing MSA.[31] Locals consider Trenton to be a part of ambiguous Central Jersey, and thus part of neither region. They are generally split as to whether they are within New York or Philadelphia's sphere of influence. While it is geographically closer to Philadelphia, many people who have recently moved to the area commute to New York City, and have moved there to escape the New York region's extremely expensive high housing costs.

Trenton is one of two state capitals that border another state – the other being Carson City, Nevada.[32]

Climate[edit]

According to the Köppen climate classification, Trenton lies in the transition from a humid subtropical (Cfa) to a humid continental climate (Dfa), with four seasons of approximately equal length and precipitation fairly evenly distributed through the year. Winters are cold and damp: the daily average temperature in January is 31.1 °F (−0.5 °C), and temperatures at or below 10 °F (−12 °C) occur on 3.9 nights annually, while there are 16−17 days where the temperature fails to rise above freezing. Summers are hot and humid, with a July daily average of 75.7 °F (24.3 °C); temperatures reaching or exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) occur on 15−16 days. Extremes in temperature have ranged from −14 °F (−26 °C) on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) as recently as July 22, 2011.[33] However, temperatures reaching 0 °F (−18 °C) or 100 °F (38 °C) are uncommon.

The average precipitation is 46.4 inches (1,180 mm) per year, which is fairly evenly distributed through the year. The driest month on average is February, with 2.31 in (59 mm) of precipitation on average, while the wettest month is July, with 4.95 in (126 mm) of rainfall on average. The all-time single-day rainfall record is 7.25 in (184.2 mm) on September 16, 1999, during the passage of Hurricane Floyd. The all-time monthly rainfall record is 14.55 in (369.6 mm) in August 1955, due to the passage of Hurricane Connie and Hurricane Diane. The wettest year on record was 1996, when 67.90 in (1,725 mm) of precipitation fell. On the flip side, the driest month on record was October 1963, when only 0.05 in (1.3 mm) of rain was recorded. The 28.79 in (731 mm) of precipitation recorded in 1957 were the lowest ever for the city.[34]

Snowfall can vary even more year-to-year. The average snowfall is 23.4 inches (59.4 cm), but has ranged from as low as 2 in (5.1 cm) in the winter of 1918–19 to as high as 76.9 in (195.3 cm) in 1995–96, which included the greatest single-storm snowfall, the Blizzard of January 7–8, 1996, when 24.2 inches (61.5 cm) of snow fell.[citation needed]

Climate data for Trenton, New Jersey (1981−2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 39.0
(3.9)
42.2
(5.7)
50.9
(10.5)
61.4
(16.3)
71.8
(22.1)
80.8
(27.1)
85.3
(29.6)
83.6
(28.7)
76.1
(24.5)
65.0
(18.3)
54.5
(12.5)
43.1
(6.2)
62.9
(17.2)
Average low °F (°C) 23.2
(−4.9)
25.8
(−3.4)
31.9
(−0.1)
41.0
(5)
50.5
(10.3)
60.3
(15.7)
66.0
(18.9)
64.2
(17.9)
56.4
(13.6)
44.2
(6.8)
36.9
(2.7)
27.6
(−2.4)
44.1
(6.7)
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.16
(80.3)
2.31
(58.7)
4.14
(105.2)
3.54
(89.9)
4.37
(111)
4.41
(112)
4.95
(125.7)
4.10
(104.1)
4.27
(108.5)
4.18
(106.2)
3.31
(84.1)
3.70
(94)
46.44
(1,179.7)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 163.1 169.7 207.4 227.2 248.1 262.8 269.2 252.5 215.0 201.5 149.3 140.1 2,505.9
Source: NOAA (sun 1961−1981)[35][36]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 1,946
1810 3,000
1820 3,942 31.4%
1830 3,925 −0.4%
1840 4,035 * 2.8%
1850 6,461 60.1%
1860 17,228 * 166.6%
1870 22,874 32.8%
1880 29,910 30.8%
1890 57,458 * 92.1%
1900 73,307 27.6%
1910 96,815 32.1%
1920 119,289 23.2%
1930 123,356 3.4%
1940 124,697 1.1%
1950 128,009 2.7%
1960 114,167 −10.8%
1970 104,638 −8.3%
1980 92,124 −12.0%
1990 88,675 −3.7%
2000 85,403 −3.7%
2010 84,913 −0.6%
Est. 2012 84,477 [10] −0.5%
Population sources: 1790-1920[37]
1840[38] 1850-1870[39] 1850[40]
1870[41] 1880-1890[42] 1910-1930[43]
1930-1990[44] 2000[45][46] 2010[7][8][9][47]
* = Territory change in previous decade.[21]

2010 Census[edit]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 84,913 people, 28,578 households, and 17,747 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,101.9 per square mile (4,286.5 /km2). There were 33,035 housing units at an average density of 4,319.2 per square mile (1,667.7 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 26.56% (22,549) White, 52.01% (44,160) Black or African American, 0.70% (598) Native American, 1.19% (1,013) Asian, 0.13% (110) Pacific Islander, 15.31% (13,003) from other races, and 4.10% (3,480) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 33.71% (28,621) of the population.[7]

There were 28,578 households, of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.1% were married couples living together, 28.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.9% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.40.[7]

In the city, 25.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.6 years. For every 100 females there were 106.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.2 males.[7]

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $36,601 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,485) and the median family income was $41,491 (+/- $2,778). Males had a median income of $29,884 (+/- $1,715) versus $31,319 (+/- $2,398) for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,400 (+/- $571). About 22.4% of families and 24.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.3% of those under age 18 and 17.5% of those age 65 or over.[48]

2000 Census[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[15] there were 85,403, people, 29,437 households, and 18,692 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,153.6 people per square mile (4,304.7/km²). There were 33,843 housing units at an average density of 4,419.9 per square mile (1,705.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 52.06% Black, 32.55% White, down from 88.6% in 1950,[49] 0.35% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.23% Pacific Islander, 10.76% from other races, and 3.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.53% of the population.[45][46]

There were 29,437 households, 32.4% of which had children under the age of 18 living with them. 29.0% were married couples living together, 27.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.38.[45][46]

In the city the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, and 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males.[45][46]

The median income for a household in the city was $31,074, and the median income for a family was $36,681. Males had a median income of $29,721 versus $26,943 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,621. About 17.6% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 19.5% of those age 65 or over.[45][46]

Top 10 ethnicities reported during the 2000 Census by percentage:[45][46]

  1. African American (50.1)
  2. Puerto Rican (14.5)
  3. Italian (4.6)
  4. Irish (3.5)
  5. Polish (3.0)
  6. Guatemalan (2.8)
  7. English (1.9)
  8. Jamaican (1.5)
  9. Hungarian (1.0)
  10. Mexican (1.0)

Economy[edit]

The Lower Trenton Bridge is commonly referred to among locals as the "Trenton Makes Bridge".

Trenton was a major manufacturing center in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. One relic of that era is the slogan "Trenton Makes, The World Takes", which is displayed on the Lower Free Bridge (just north of the Trenton–Morrisville Toll Bridge).[50] The city adopted the slogan in 1917 to represent Trenton's then-leading role as a major manufacturing center for rubber, wire rope, ceramics and cigars.[51]

Along with many other United States cities in the 1970s, Trenton fell on hard times when manufacturing and industrial jobs declined. Concurrently, state government agencies began leasing office space in the surrounding suburbs. State government leaders (particularly governors William Cahill and Brendan Byrne) attempted to revitalize the downtown area by making it the center of state government. Between 1982 and 1992, more than a dozen office buildings were constructed primarily by the state to house state offices.[52] Today, Trenton's biggest employer is still the state of New Jersey. Each weekday, 20,000 state workers flood into the city from the surrounding suburbs.[53]

Commerce[edit]

Urban Enterprise Zone[edit]

Portions of Trenton are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate at eligible merchants (versus the 7% rate charged statewide).[54]

Neighborhoods[edit]

The city of Trenton is home to numerous neighborhoods and sub-neighborhoods. The main neighborhoods are taken from the four cardinal directions (North, South, East, and West). Trenton was once home to large Italian, Hungarian, and Jewish communities, but since the 1950s demographic shifts have changed the city into a relatively segregated urban enclave of middle and lower income African Americans. Italians are scattered throughout the city, but a distinct Italian community is centered in the Chambersburg neighborhood, in South Trenton.[55] This community has been in decline since the 1970s, largely due to economic and social shifts to the more prosperous, less crime-ridden suburbs surrounding the city. Today Chambersburg has a large Latino community. Many of the Latino immigrants are from Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua. There is also a significant and growing Asian community in the Chambersburg neighborhood primarily made up of Burmese and Bhutanese/Nepali refugees.

The North Ward, once a mecca for the city's middle class, is now one of the most economically distressed, torn apart by race riots following the assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968. Nonetheless, the area still retains many important architectural and historic sites. North Trenton still has a large Polish-American neighborhood that borders Lawrence Township, many of whom attend St Hedwig's Roman Catholic Church on Brunswick Ave. St. Hedwig's church was built in 1904 by Polish immigrants, many of whose families still attend the church. North Trenton is also home to the historic Shiloh Baptist Church—one of the largest houses of worship in Trenton and the oldest African American church in the city, founded in 1888. The church is currently pastored by Rev. Darrell L. Armstrong, who carried the Olympic torch in 2002 for the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Also located just at the southern tip of North Trenton is the city's Battle Monument, also known as "Five Points". It is a 150 ft (46 m) structure that marks the spot where George Washington's Continental Army launched the Battle of Trenton during the American Revolutionary War. It faces downtown Trenton and is a symbol of the city's historic past.

South Ward is the most diverse neighborhood in Trenton and is home to many Latin American, Italian-American, and African American residents.

East Ward is the smallest neighborhood in Trenton and is home to the Trenton Train Station as well as Trenton Central High School. Recently, two campuses have been added, Trenton Central High School West and Trenton Central High School North, respectively, in those areas of the city. The Chambersburg neighborhood is within the East Ward, and was once noted in the region as a destination for its many Italian restaurants and pizzerias. With changing demographics, many of these businesses have either closed or relocated to suburban locations.

West Ward is the home of Trenton's more suburban neighborhoods.

  • Downtown/Central Trenton
  • East Trenton
    • Ewing and Carroll
    • Greenwood and Hamilton
    • Villa Park
    • Wilbur
  • West Trenton
    • Berkeley Square
    • Cadwalader Heights and Hillcrest
    • Glen Afton
    • Glendale
    • Hiltonia
    • Parkside
    • Pennington/Prospect
    • Prospect Park
    • Stuyvesant/Prospect
    • The Island
    • Weber Park
    • West End
  • South Trenton
  • North Trenton
    • Battle Monument (Five Points)
    • Top Road

Government[edit]

Trenton City Hall, seat of local government

Local government[edit]

The City of Trenton is governed under the Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council) system of municipal government by a Mayor and a seven-member city council. Three city council members are elected at-large, and four come from each of four wards.[5][56]

Mayor and Council[edit]

On July 1, 2014 Eric Jackson was sworn in as the Mayor of Trenton, as were the members of the City Council (whose terms end June 30, 2018). They are Phyllis Holly-Ward (At-Large), Alex Bethea (At-Large), Duncan Harrison, Jr. (At-Large), Zachary Chester (West Ward), Marge Caldwell-Wilson (North Ward), George Muschal (South Ward), and Verlina Reynolds-Jackson (East Ward).[57][58]

Interim mayor 2014[edit]

From February 7 to July 1, 2014 the acting mayor was George Muschal who retroactively assumed the office on that date due to the felony conviction of Tony F. Mack, who had taken office on July 1, 2010.[59][60] Muschal, who was council president, was selected by the city council to serve as the interim mayor to finish the term.[61]

Mayor's conviction and removal from office[edit]

On February 7, 2014, Mack and his brother, Raphiel Mack, were convicted by a federal jury of bribery, fraud and extortion, based on the details of their participation in a scheme to take money in exchange for helping get approvals to develop a downtown parking garage as part of a fictitious sting operation by law enforcement.[62] Days after the conviction, the office of the New Jersey Attorney General filed motions to have Mack removed from office, as state law requires the removal of elected officials after convictions for corruption.[63] Initially, Mack fought the removal of him from the office but on February 26, a superior court judge ordered his removal and any actions taken by Mack between February 7 and the 26th could have be reversed by Muschal.[61] Previously, Mack's housing director quit after it was learned he had a theft conviction. His chief of staff was arrested trying to buy heroin. His half-brother, whose authority he elevated at the city water plant, was arrested on charges of stealing. His law director resigned after arguing with Mack over complying with open-records laws and potential violations of laws prohibiting city contracts to big campaign donors.[64]

Federal, state and county representation[edit]

The New Jersey State House in Trenton

Trenton is located in the 12th Congressional District[65] and is part of New Jersey's 15th state legislative district.[8][66][67] Prior to the 2010 Census, Trenton had been split between the 4th Congressional District and the 12th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections.[68]

New Jersey's Twelfth Congressional District is represented by Rush D. Holt, Jr. (D, Hopewell Township).[69] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg)[70][71] and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus).[72][73]

For the 2014-2015 Session, the 15th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Shirley Turner (D, Lawrence Township, Mercer County) and in the General Assembly by Reed Gusciora (D, Trenton) and Bonnie Watson Coleman (D, Ewing Township).[74][75] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[76] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[77]

Mercer County is governed by a County Executive who oversees the day-to-day operations of the county and by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders that acts in a legislative capacity, setting policy. All officials are chosen at-large in partisan elections, with the executive serving a four-year term of office while the freeholders serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats up for election each year.[78] As of 2014, the County Executive is Brian M. Hughes (D, term ends December 31, 2015; Princeton).[79] Mercer County's Freeholders are Freeholder Chair Andrew Koontz (D, 2016; Princeton),[80] Freeholder Vice Chair Samuel T. Frisby, Sr. (2015; Trenton),[81] Ann M. Cannon (2015; East Windsor Township),[82] Anthony P. Carabelli (2016; Trenton),[83] John A. Cimino (2014, Hamilton Township),[84] Pasquale "Pat" Colavita, Jr. (2015; Lawrence Township)[85] and Lucylle R. S. Walter (2014; Ewing Township)[86][87][88] Mercer County's constitutional officers are County Clerk Paula Sollami-Covello (D, 2015),[89] Sheriff John A. Kemler (D, 2014)[90] and Surrogate Diane Gerofsky (D, 2016).[91][57]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 37,407 registered voters in Trenton, of which 16,819 (45.0%) were registered as Democrats, 1,328 (3.6%) were registered as Republicans and 19,248 (51.5%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 12 voters registered to other parties.[92]

In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 89.9% of the vote here (23,577 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 8.2% (2,157 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (141 votes), among the 26,229 ballots cast by the city's 41,005 registered voters, for a turnout of 64.0%.[93] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 79.8% of the vote here (18,539 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 16.3% (3,791 votes) and other candidates with 0.4% (146 votes), among the 23,228 ballots cast by the city's 39,139 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 59.3.[94]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 81.6% of the vote here (10,235 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 12.4% (1,560 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 2.4% (305 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (135 votes), among the 12,537 ballots cast by the city's 38,345 registered voters, yielding a 32.7% turnout.[95]

Fire department[edit]

The city of Trenton is protected on a full-time basis by the city of Trenton Fire and Emergency Services Department (TFD), which has been a paid department since 1892 after having been originally established in 1747 as a volunteer fire department.[96] The TFD operates out of seven fire stations and operates a fire apparatus fleet of 7 engines, 3 ladders, and one rescue, along with two HAZMAT units, a mobile command unit, one fireboat, and numerous other special, support and reserve units.[97]

Fire station locations and apparatus
Engine company Ladder company Special Unit Address
Engine 1 Ladder 1 Marine 1 460 Calhoun Street
Engine 3 Ladder 2 720 S. Broad Street
Engine 6 561 N. Clinton Avenue
Engine 7 502 Hamilton Avenue
Engine 8 698 Stuyvesant Avenue
Engine 9 1464 W. State Street
Engine 10 Ladder 4 Rescue 1, Haz-Mat. 1, Mobile Command Unit 244 Perry Street

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Trenton is the home of two post-secondary institutions. Thomas Edison State College serves adult students around the nation and worldwide.[98] Mercer County Community College's James Kearney Campus.[99]

The College of New Jersey, formerly named Trenton State College, was founded in Trenton in 1855 and is now located in nearby Ewing Township. Rider University was founded in Trenton in 1865 as The Trenton Business College. In 1959, Rider moved to its current location in nearby Lawrence Township.[100]

Public schools[edit]

The Trenton Public Schools serve students in kindergarten through twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 Abbott districts statewide,[101] which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.[102][103] The Superintendent runs the district and the school board is appointed by the Mayor. The school district has undergone a 'construction' renaissance throughout the district. Trenton Central High School is Trenton's only traditional public high school.

Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[104]) are Columbus Elementary School[105] (PK-8; 228), Franklin Elementary School[106] (K-5; 343), Grant Elementary School[107] (PK-8; 506), Gregory Elementary School[108] (PK-8; 371), P.J. Hill Elementary School[109] (PK-8; 506), Dr. Martin Luther King Elementary School[110] (was Jefferson; 461), Monument Elementary School[111] (PK-8; 365), Mott Elementary School][112] (PK-8; 375), Parker Elementary School][113] (P-5; 402), Robbins Elementary School][114] (K-5; 395), Robeson Elementary School][115] Stokes Elementary School][116] (K-5; 165), Washington Elementary School][117] (PK-5; 300), Wilson Elementary School][118] (PK-5; 349), Calwalader 6-8 Alternative Program[119] (was PK-5; 185 students), Dunn Middle School[120] (6-8; 445), Hedgepeth/Williams Middle School[121] (was PK-8; 716), Kilmer Middle School[122] (was PK-8; 452), Rivera Middle School,[123] Daylight Twilight High School[124] (9-12; 369), Trenton Central High School[125] (9-12; 1,741) and Trenton Central High School West[126] (9-12; 621).[127][128][129][130]

Trenton is home to several charter schools, including Capital Preparatory Charter High School, Emily Fisher Charter School, Foundation Academy Charter School, International Charter School, Paul Robeson Charter School, and Village Charter School.[131]

Private schools[edit]

St. Raphael Grammar School, which serves students in Pre-K through 8th grade, operates under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Trenton.[132]

Trenton Community Music School is a not-for-profit community school of the arts. The school was founded by executive director Marcia Wood in 1997. The school currently operates at Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church (on Tuesdays) and the Copeland Center for the Performing Arts (on Saturdays).

Trenton is home to Al-Bayaan Academy, which opened for preschool students in September 2001 and added grades in subsequent years.[133]

Crime[edit]

In 2005, there were 31 homicides in Trenton, which at that time was the largest number in a single year in the city's history.[134] The city was named the 4th "Most Dangerous" in 2005 out of 129 cities with a population of 75,000 to 99,999 ranked nationwide.[135] In the 2006 survey, Trenton was ranked as the 14th most dangerous "city" overall out of 371 cities included nationwide in the 13th annual Morgan Quitno survey, and was again named as the fourth most dangerous "city" of 126 cities in the 75,000–99,999 population range.[136] Homicides went down in 2006 to 20, but back up to 25 in 2007.[137] In September 2011, the city fired 108 police officers due to budget cuts; this constituted almost one-third of the Trenton Police Department and required 30 senior officers to be sent out on patrols in lieu of supervisory duties.[138]

In 2013, the city set a new record with 37 homicides in Trenton.[139]

Riots of 1968[edit]

The Trenton Riots of 1968 were a major civil disturbance that took place during the week following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King in Memphis on April 4. Race riots broke out nationwide following the murder of the civil rights activist. More than 200 Trenton businesses, mostly in Downtown, were ransacked and burned. More than 300 people, most of them young black men, were arrested on charges ranging from assault and arson to looting and violating the mayor's emergency curfew. In addition to 16 injured policemen, 15 firefighters were treated at city hospitals for smoke inhalation, burns, sprains and cuts suffered while fighting raging blazes or for injuries inflicted by rioters. Denizens of Trenton's urban core often pulled false alarms and would then throw bricks at firefighters responding to the alarm boxes. This experience, along with similar experiences in other major cities, effectively ended the use of open-cab fire engines. As an interim measure, the Trenton Fire Department fabricated temporary cab enclosures from steel deck plating until new equipment could be obtained. The losses incurred by downtown businesses were initially estimated by the city to be $7 million, but the total of insurance claims and settlements came to $2.5 million.[140]

Trenton's Battle Monument neighborhood was hardest hit. Since the 1950s, North Trenton had witnessed a steady exodus of middle-class residents, and the riots spelled the end for North Trenton. By the 1970s, the region had become one of the most blighted and crime-ridden in the city, although gentrification in the area is revitalizing certain sections.

New Jersey State Prison[edit]

The New Jersey State Prison (formerly Trenton State Prison), which has two maximum security units, is located in Trenton. The prison houses some of the state's most dangerous individuals, which included New Jersey's death row population until the state banned capital punishment in 2007.[141]

The following is inscribed over the original entrance to the prison.

Labor, Silence, Penitence.
The Penitentiary House,
Erected By Legislative
Authority.
Richard Howell, Governor.
In The XXII Year Of
American Independence
MDCCXCVII
That Those Who Are Feared
For Their Crimes
May Learn To Fear The Laws
And Be Useful
Hic Labor, Hic Opus.[142]

Transportation[edit]

Route 1 through downtown Trenton, looking north from the East State Street overpass

City highways include the Trenton Freeway, which is part of U.S. Route 1, and the John Fitch Parkway, which is part of Route 29. Canal Boulevard, more commonly known as Route 129, connects US Route 1 and NJ Route 29 in South Trenton. U.S. Route 206, Route 31, and Route 33 also pass through the city via regular city streets (Broad Street/Brunswick Avenue/Princeton Avenue, Pennington Avenue, and Greenwood Avenue, respectively).

NJ 29 through downtown Trenton, with the Delaware River on the left

Routes 29 and 129 connect the city to Interstate 195 which provides connections with Interstate 295 and the New Jersey Turnpike (also known as Interstate 95).

Public transportation within the city and to/from its nearby suburbs is provided in the form of local bus routes run by New Jersey Transit. SEPTA also provides bus service to adjacent Bucks County, Pennsylvania.

The Trenton Train Station, located on the heavily traveled Northeast Corridor, serves as the northbound terminus for SEPTA's Trenton Line (local train service to Philadelphia) and southbound terminus for New Jersey Transit's Northeast Corridor Line (local train service to Penn Station New York). The train station also serves as the northbound terminus for the River Line; a diesel light rail line that runs to Camden.[143] Two additional River Line stops, Cass Street and Hamilton Avenue, are located within the city.

Long-distance transportation is provided by Amtrak train service along the Northeast Corridor.

The closest commercial airport is Trenton-Mercer Airport in Ewing Township, about 8 miles (13 km) from the center of Trenton, which is served by Frontier Airlines nonstop to and from 10 points nationwide.

Other nearby major airports are Newark Liberty International Airport and Philadelphia International Airport, located 55.2 miles (88.8 km) and 43.4 miles (69.8 km) away, respectively and reachable by direct New Jersey Transit or Amtrak rail link (to Newark) and by SEPTA Regional Rail (to Philadelphia).

New Jersey Transit provides bus service between Trenton and Philadelphia on the 409 route, with service to surrounding communities on the 600, 601, 602, 603, 604, 606, 607, 608, 609 and 611 routes.[144]

Media[edit]

Trenton is served by two daily newspapers: The Times and The Trentonian, as well as a monthly advertising magazine: "The City" Trenton N.E.W.S.. Radio station WKXW is also licensed to Trenton. Defunct periodicals include the Trenton True American. A local television station, WPHY-CD TV-25, serves the entire Trenton area.[145]'

As mentioned above, Trenton is part of the Philadelphia television market. While it is its own radio market, Philadelphia and New York stations are both easily receivable.

Sports[edit]

Club League Venue Affiliate Established Championships
Trenton Thunder EL, Baseball Arm & Hammer Park New York Yankees 1994 3
The Trenton City Museum located at the Ellarslie Mansion in Cadwalader Park

Because of Trenton's relative distance to New York City and Philadelphia, and because most homes in Mercer County receive network broadcasts from both cities, locals are sharply divided in fan loyalty between both cities. It is not uncommon to find Philadelphia's Phillies, Eagles, 76ers, Union and Flyers fans cheering (and arguing) right alongside fans of New York's Yankees, Mets, Nets, Knicks, Rangers, Jets, Red Bulls and Giants or the New Jersey Devils.

Between 1948 and 1979 Trenton Speedway hosted world class auto racing. It was actually located in adjacent Hamilton Township. Drivers such as Jim Clark, A. J. Foyt, Mario Andretti, Al Unser, Bobby Unser, Richard Petty and Bobby Allison raced on the one mile (1.6 km) asphalt oval and then re-configured 1½ mile race track. The speedway, which closed in 1980, was part of the larger New Jersey State Fairgrounds complex, which also closed in 1983. The former site of the speedway and fairgrounds is now the Grounds for Sculpture.[146]

The Trenton Thunder, a Double-A minor league team affiliated with the New York Yankees that is owned by Joe Plumeri, plays at 6,341-seat Arm & Hammer Park, the stadium which Plumeri had previously named after his father in 1999.[147][148][149]

Points of interest[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Notable current and former residents of Trenton include:

References[edit]

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  152. ^ Trenton Battle Monument, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Division of Parks and Forestry. Accessed September 7, 2013.
  153. ^ Designing the Monument, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Division of Parks and Forestry. Accessed September 7, 2013.
  154. ^ Trenton City Hall, Library of Congress. Accessed September 7, 2013.
  155. ^ Welcome to the Trenton City Museum, Trenton City Museum. Accessed September 7, 2013.
  156. ^ Frequently Asked Questions about the War Memorial, New Jersey Department of State. Accessed September 7, 2013.
  157. ^ About the 1719 Trent House, William Trent House. Accessed September 7, 2013. "William Trent built his country estate north of Philadelphia, in New Jersey, at the Falls of the Delaware River about 1719.... In 1720 Trent laid out a settlement, which he incorporated and named 'Trenton.'"
  158. ^ Charles Conrad Abbott Papers, 1770–1919 (bulk 1874–1916): Finding Aid, Princeton University Library. Accessed January 25, 2011.
  159. ^ McAuliff, Michael. "Alito Bit of GOP Love", Daily News (New York), January 10, 2006. Accessed January 25, 2011. "With two rows of his family sitting behind him, Alito recounted his Trenton upbringing, the lives of his immigrant parents, and the culture clash he felt when he went to Princeton University in the late '60s."
  160. ^ Livingston, Guy. "George Antheil's Childhood in Trenton", Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, September 2001. Accessed January 25, 2011.
  161. ^ Staff. "AMERICANS REACH SAFETY IN SWEDEN; 43 Persons, Evacuated From Finnish Capital, Are Taken to Stockholm by Ship U.S. LEGATION IS MOVED Staff, Still on Duty, Takes Up Temporary Quarters About 12 Miles From Helsinki", The New York Times, December 6, 1939. Accessed January 25, 2011.
  162. ^ Phillips, Rashad. "MellowHype: Chordaroy Life", HipHopDX, July 15, 2011. Accessed March 30, 2012. "DX: Now as far as the L.A. scene, I read that you are actually from out East. Hodgy Beats: Yeah, I was born in East Lawrence, New Jersey and raised in Trenton until I was eight."
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  170. ^ Staff. "Tal Brody returns to basketball home, A Trenton High star who became a star in Israel leads students on a U.S. exhibition tour.", The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 13, 2006. Accessed January 25, 2011.
  171. ^ Staff. "BETTY BRONSON, 17, GETS PETER PAN ROLE; Sir James Barrie Selects Almost Unknown Film Actress After 100 Tests of Players.", The New York Times, August 16, 1924. Accessed January 25, 2011.
  172. ^ Caldwell, Dave. "Sprinter Turned Driver Is a Quick Study in Acceleration", The New York Times, August 30, 2009. Accessed November 26, 2013. "Brown, a 33-year-old native of Chesterfield, N.J., could become the first African-American to win a major N.H.R.A. championship.... Brown lived in Trenton until he was 6. When his grandfather died, his family moved to his grandmother’s 10-acre farm in Chesterfield, in the rural part of Burlington County."
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  174. ^ Kaufman, Gil. "Jay-Z's 'Decoded': The Reviews Are In! Hov 'deserves the same level of respect as any of those great scribes,' one reviewer writes, comparing the MC to iconic poets.", MTV, November 16, 2010. Accessed January 25, 2011.
  175. ^ Case III, George. "Remembering a Trenton dad who made his mark in the big leagues", The Trentonian, July 4, 2010. Accessed January 25, 2011.
  176. ^ Longman, Jere. "BOXING;3 Friends Qualify for U.S. Boxing Team", The New York Times, April 19, 1996. Accessed December 4, 2007. "Cauthen, 19, grew up 40 miles north, in Trenton, but he has fought out of Frazier's gym in Philadelphia for nine years."
  177. ^ Opdyke, Tom. "POP MUSIC THIS 'BOOTS' IS MADE FOR THE TENOR SAXOPHONE", The Morning Call, February 18, 1984. Accessed January 25, 2011.
  178. ^ Provizer, Norman. "RICHIE COLE BRINGS SAX APPEAL TO VARTAN", Rocky Mountain News, April 4, 1996. Accessed March 25, 2012. "On his current CD, Kush: The Music of Dizzy Gillespie, alto saxophonist Richie Cole spends most of his time in the company of a large brass section.... Instead, the Trenton, N.J. native will be in a quartet setting for a live recording on the Vartan Jazz label."
  179. ^ Staff. "RICHARD CROOKS WINS PLAUDITS ON RETURN; American Tenor Sings Oratorio and Opera Airs Before Throng in Carnegie Hall.", The New York Times, October 27, 1927. Accessed January 25, 2011.
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  181. ^ Bohlen, Celestine. "THE NATION: David N. Dinkins; An Even Temper In the Tempest of Mayoral Politics", The New York Times, September 17, 1989. Accessed March 16, 2012. "From his childhood, which he spent divided between New York City and Trenton, David Dinkins has kept steady control of his emotions, friends and family members say. When he was 6 years old, his mother left his father in Trenton and moved to New York, taking her two children with her. Mr. Dinkins later returned to Trenton, where he attended elementary and high school."
  182. ^ Freeman, Rick. "Diamond Reflections: Al Downing misses creativity in the batters' box", The Times (Trenton), August 18, 2010. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Over 33 years since he threw his last major-league pitch and nearly a half-century since he left Trenton to pursue a professional career, Al Downing remains a keen and opinionated observer of the game of baseball."
  183. ^ Harrington Emerson Papers, 1848-1931, Penn State University. Accessed October 19, 2013. "Emerson was born on August 2, 1853 in Trenton, New Jersey."
  184. ^ Armstrong, Samuel S. "Trenton in the Mexican, Civil, and Spanish-American Wars", accessed May 9, 2007. "Samuel Gibbs French was a native of Trenton and graduated from West Point in 1843 with the brevet rank of Second Lieutenant and assigned to the Third U.S. Artillery, July 1, 1843."
  185. ^ Bostrom, Don. "GALLAGHER LEADS PHILS PAST GIANTS OUTFIELDER'S 3-FOR-3 NIGHT SPARKS 2-1 WIN", The Morning Call, May 25, 1995. Accessed February 1, 2011. "With Lenny Dykstra nursing his sore lower back for the second straight day, role player Dave Gallagher took over the leading role. All the 34-year-old Trenton native did was go 3-for-3 to raise his average to a nifty .441."
  186. ^ Staff. "76ERS ADD GREG GRANT'S SPEED AS TEAM SEEKS ZIP IN OFFENSE THE TEAM'S NEWEST GUARD CAME FROM THE CBA TO HELP REPLACE VERNON MAXWELL. HE HAS A CHANCE TO STICK.", The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 22, 1995. Accessed February 1, 2011. "Grant, a Trenton native, has played with five NBA teams since coming into the league as the Phoenix Suns' second round pick out of Trenton State in 1989."
  187. ^ Bennetts, Leslie. "New Face: Roxanne Hart Coming of Age In 'Loose Ends'", The New York Times, July 6, 1979. Accessed February 1, 2011. "She was born in Trenton, the oldest of five children, but moved from Delaware to Colorado to Georgia to Long Island..."
  188. ^ Staff. "SIXERS-NETS TALKS STALL OVER HINSON", The Philadelphia Inquirer, January 15, 1988. Accessed February 1, 2011. "'If it's in New Jersey, I'm close to home,' added Hinson, a native of Trenton."
  189. ^ Charles Robert Howell, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 10, 2007.
  190. ^ Elijah Cubberley Hutchinson, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 7, 2007.
  191. ^ Medal of Honor Recipients — World War II (G-L), United States Army Center of Military History, July 16, 2007. Accessed January 28, 2008.
  192. ^ D'Allesandro, Dave. "Notebook: Trenton native Dahntay Jones enjoying his best season yet with the Indiana Pacers", The Star-Ledger, November 17, 2009. Accessed February 1, 2011.
  193. ^ Staff. "Former JFK, LBJ aide remembers years in Washington", Associated Press, October 23, 2008. Accessed February 1, 2011. "Katzenbach, a native of Philadelphia who grew up in Trenton, NJ, was born into a political family."
  194. ^ Staff. "Falcons win at Lambeau, take on Vet next", Philadelphia Daily News, January 6, 2003. Accessed February 1, 2011. "Now it's on to Philadelphia, not far from Kerney's hometown of Trenton, to play the Eagles..."
  195. ^ CFL.ca Player Profile. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  196. ^ Staff. "Trenton's own Ernie Kovacs to be celebrated Sunday, his 92nd birthday", The Trentonian, January 23, 2011. Accessed February 1, 2011.
  197. ^ Fletcher, Juliet. "There's No Place Like Home: After two years in New Hope, a Tin Man finds the heart of the gallery scene in Philly.", Philadelphia City Paper, November 27-December 3, 2002 . Accessed March 20, 2012. "Partly why this Trenton expat moved his base of operations to Philadelphia from New York, 'where it costs four times what it does here to run a business month to month,' was to give artists -- particularly those very New York or West Coast-oriented -- a wider spread of support."
  198. ^ Strausbaugh, John. "Street Art That's Finding A New Address", The New York Times, March 7, 2010. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Mr. LeVine came to the movement the same way his artists did. He grew up in Trenton and earned a degree in sculpture, but he was less attracted to fine art than he was to underground comics, punk and hip-hop, 'anything subculture and edgy.' With a loan from his parents, he opened his first small art gallery in New Hope, Pa., in 2001."
  199. ^ Stone, Sally. "Judith Light: Is best always better?", The Spokesman-Review, October 12, 1993. Accessed February 1, 2011. "Judith Light grew up in Trenton, New Jersey. After her junior year at St. Mary's Hall, a private girl's school, she enrolled in a summer drama program at St. Mary's Hall, a private girl's school, she enrolled in a summer program at Carnegie Tech..."
  200. ^ Joe Holley, "Former Diplomat Sol Linowitz, 91, Dies", The Washington Post, March 18, 2005. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Sol Myron Linowitz was the eldest of four sons born to Joseph and Rose Oglenskye Linowitz, immigrants from a region of Poland under Russian rule. He was born in Trenton, N.J., in a multicultural neighborhood of Jews, Protestants and Catholics, as well as one African American family."
  201. ^ Abdur-Rahman, Sulaiman. "Former 'Melrose Place' actress Amy Locane-Bovenizer of Hopewell indicted in fatal crash", The Trentonian, December 16, 2010. Accessed February 1, 2011. "Trenton-born TV and film actress Amy Locane-Bovenizer, whose resume includes several big screen gigs with Hollywood A-listers, was indicted Thursday on charges she was boozed up and driving recklessly when she killed a woman in a horrific two-vehicle accident June 27."
  202. ^ Staff. "REPORT: GIANTS' MCKENZIE ARRESTED FOR DUI", The Sports Network, November 14, 2008. Accessed February 1, 2011. "A Trenton, New Jersey native, McKenzie has played all but three games for the Giants since signing with the club as a free agent prior to the 2005 season."
  203. ^ Andres, Edmund L. "A Salesman for Bush's Tax Plan Who Has Belittled Similar Ideas", The New York Times, February 28, 2003. Accessed March 16, 2012. "Nicholas Gregory Mankiw: BORN -- Feb. 3, 1958, Trenton"
  204. ^ Staff. "Jim Croce and Maury Muehleisen's musical partnership endures", Inside Jersey, August 16, 2010. Accessed March 16, 2012. "Maury Muehleisen was blessed with many musical gifts.By the time he was a teenager, the Trenton native already was an accomplished pianist. In late 1970, at age 21, Muehleisen released “Gingerbreadd,” his only solo album, on Capitol Records."
  205. ^ Baldwin, Tom. "Where did Pike peak? Colo. explorer got start in New Jersey", Courier-Post, August 25, 2008. Accessed September 19, 2008. "Nineteenth century Jersey explorer Zebulon Pike was born in Lamberton, now a part of south Trenton, but gave his name to Colorado's 14,000-foot (4,300 m) Pikes Peak."
  206. ^ Bianco, Anthony. "Joe Plumeri: The Apostle of Life Insurance", Business Week, March 30, 1998. Accessed February 12, 2014. "That would be the blue-collar precincts of North Trenton, N.J., just 15 miles from here. The cool-walking demonstration ended, Plumeri explains how he stumbled into a career on Wall Street by taking a menial job at a brokerage house that he had mistaken for a law firm."
  207. ^ CEO Plumeri. Business Week. May 6, 2008. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  208. ^ David Lane Powers, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 9, 2007.
  209. ^ Amy Robinson:Overview, MSN. Accessed February 8, 2011.
  210. ^ Staff. "Miller, Rodman highlight Hall of Fame finalists", Toronto Sun, November 30, 2010. Accessed February 8, 2011. "A native of Trenton, New Jersey, Rodman was a controversial presence both on and off the court despite winning five NBA titles (1988-89 with Detroit; 1996-98 with Chicago)."
  211. ^ Staff. "Talking too much for our own good", The Intelligencer, May 15, 2003. Accessed February 8, 2011. "That version of Bob Ryan spent 20 minutes talking about the Palestra, growing up in Trenton, and great writers from the Philadelphia area."
  212. ^ Daniel Bailey Ryall, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 3, 2007.
  213. ^ Staff. "ANTONIN SCALIA ASSOCIATE JUSTICE NOMINEE", The Miami Herald, June 18, 1986. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  214. ^ Staff. "Frank D. Schroth, 89, Publisher Of The Brooklyn Eagle, Is Dead; Acclaimed for His Service", The New York Times, June 11, 1974. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  215. ^ Weber, Bruce. "Thomas N. Schroth, Influential Washington Editor, Is Dead at 88", The New York Times, August 4, 2009. Retrieved March 16, 2012. "Thomas Nolan Schroth was born in Trenton on Dec. 21, 1920, the son of The Brooklyn Eagle’s publisher, Frank D. Schroth."
  216. ^ Lamb, David. "General a winner who learned history's lessons", St. Petersburg Times, March 9, 1991. Accessed February 8, 2011. "H. Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. - the H. stands for nothing and he doesn't use the junior - was born in Trenton, NJ, 56 years ago, the son of German immigrants."
  217. ^ Charles Skelton, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved August 25, 2007.
  218. ^ Burch, Audra D. S. "CODE BLUE BEST OF TIMES, WORST OF TIMES FOR BLACK COMICS", Chicago Tribune, April 13, 1997. Accessed February 8, 2011. "'I talk about what people are thinking about,' says Sommore, from Trenton, N.J. 'And I use curse words to enrich what I am saying.'"
  219. ^ Staff. "GM's history of CEOs - Robert C. Stempel", Los Angeles Times. Accessed February 8, 2011. "Stempel was born July 15, 1933, in Trenton, N.J."
  220. ^ Lee, Edward. "SPECIAL SEASON FOR RAVENS' STILLS ; RESERVE LINEBACKER, DOMINANT ON SPECIAL TEAMS, CALLS CAMPAIGN `HIGHLIGHT OF MY CAREER'", The Baltimore Sun, December 9, 2006. Accessed February 8, 2011. "A native of Trenton, NJ, Stills repeated the fourth and seventh grades and sat out his freshman year at West Virginia after being ruled academically."
  221. ^ Reichler, Joseph L., ed. (1979) [1969]. The Baseball Encyclopedia (4th edition ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-578970-8. 
  222. ^ Host: Ty Treadway at the Wayback Machine (archived January 13, 2008), Merv Griffin's Crosswords. Archived as of January 13, 2008. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Ty Treadway was born Tyrus Richard Treadway on February 11 to Richard and Mary Lou Treadway. Ty joined six older siblings, and the family resided in Trenton, New Jersey."
  223. ^ Attner, Paul. "A work of heart: much of Eagles cornerback Troy Vincent's hometown of Trenton, N.J., is in disrepair. But his plentiful, passionate and personal work to rebuild and revitalize the community is beginning to show results and makes him No. 1 on TSN's annual list of Good Guys in pro sports", The Sporting News, July 7, 2003. Accessed February 8, 2011. "Troy Vincent is walking through the Wilbur section of Trenton, N.J. He grew up in Wilbur when survival was a daily 10-round fight. It's worse now."
  224. ^ Allan Bartholomew Walsh, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 6, 2007.
  225. ^ Charlie Weis, New England Patriots. Retrieved August 18, 2007.
  226. ^ Staff. "Local celebs need to brush up on Goodwill", 98.4 Capital FM, July 4, 2010. Accessed February 8, 2011. "In addition to Jay-Z and Russell Simmons, rappers Ludacris, Chuck D and Trenton’s own Wise Intelligent of the Poor Righteous Teachers will deliver taped messages to attendees."
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