The church originates from the 6th century AD, in the area where there were once a temple, a theatre and, perhaps, some baths. In the 11th-12th centuries the church was remodeled in Romanesque style. In 1768 it was demolished and rebuilt in Neoclassicist style, only the crypt remaining from the previous edifice. The current façade dates from 1836. The Treviso Cathedral was affected in the 7 April 1944 (Good Friday) bombing, having part of its library involved in a fire.
Sights in the interior include the Malchiostro Chapel, designed by Tullio and Antonio Lombardo, which was frescoed by Il Pordenone and which houses the Malchiostro Annunciation by Titian and two canvasses by Paris Bordone.
The church has an unfinished bell tower, whose construction, according to the tradition, was stopped by the Venetian government to prevent it from becoming taller than the campanile of St. Mark's Basilica. The crypt houses the tombs of the city's bishops.
The Diocesan Museum is home to a fresco by Tommaso da Modena