Trialeti culture

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A bejeweled gold cup from Trialeti. National Museum of Georgia, Tbilisi.

The Trialeti culture (Georgian: თრიალეთის კულტურა), named after Trialeti region of Georgia, is attributed to the first part of the 2nd millennium BC.[1] In the late 3rd millennium BC, settlements of the Kura-Araxes culture began to be replaced by early Trialeti culture sites.[2] The Trialeti culture was a second culture to appear in Georgia, after the Shulaveri-Shomu culture which existed from 6000 to 4000 BC.[3] The Trialeti culture shows close ties with the highly-developed cultures of the ancient world, particularly with the Aegean,[4] but also with cultures to the south,[5] such as probably the Sumerians and their Akkadian conquerors.

The site at Trialeti was originally excavated in 1936–1940 in advance of a hydroelectric scheme, when forty-six barrows were uncovered. A further six barrows were uncovered in 1959–1962.[6]

The Trialeti culture was known for its particular form of burial.[7] The elite were interred in large, very rich burials under earth and stone mounds, which sometimes contained four-wheeled carts.[7] Also there were many gold objects found in the graves.[4] These gold objects were similar to those found in Iran and Iraq.[3] They also worked tin and arsenic.[8] This form of burial in a tumulus or "kurgan", along with wheeled vehicles, is the same as that of the Kurgan culture which has been associated with the speakers of the Caucasian language. In fact, the black burnished pottery of especially early Trialeti kurgans is similar to Kura-Araxes pottery.[9] In a historical context, their impressive accumulation of wealth in burial kurgans, like that of other associated and nearby cultures with similar burial practices, is particularly noteworthy.[10] This practice was probably a result of influence from the older civilizations to the south in the Fertile Crescent.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Munchaev 1994, p. 16; cf., Kushnareva and Chubinishvili 1963, pp. 16 ff.
  2. ^ The Making of Bronze Age Eurasia - Page 266 by Philip L. Kohl
  3. ^ a b The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia
  4. ^ a b Trialeti culture
  5. ^ Edens, Christoper (Aug–Nov 1995). "Transcaucasia at the End of the Early Bronze Age". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (The American Schools of Oriental Research). 299/300 (The Archaeology of Empire in Ancient Anatolia): p. 60, pp. 53–64. 
  6. ^ The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus. Charles Burney and David Marshall Lang p 90- 96.
  7. ^ a b Burial in the Trialeti culture
  8. ^ Edens. p. 56.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ Edens. p. 58.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ Edens. p. 59.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ Edens. p. see generally.  Missing or empty |title= (help)