Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire

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Coordinates: 40°43′48″N 73°59′43″W / 40.730085°N 73.995356°W / 40.730085; -73.995356

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
Image of Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire on March 25 - 1911.jpg
Time 4:40 PM (Eastern Time)
Date March 25, 1911 (1911-03-25)
Location Asch Building
Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
Deaths 146
Injuries 71

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in Manhattan, New York City on March 25, 1911 was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city, and one of the deadliest in U.S. history. The fire caused the deaths of 146 garment workers – 123 women and 23 men [1] – who died from the fire, smoke inhalation, or falling or jumping to their deaths. Most of the victims were recent Jewish and Italian immigrant women aged sixteen to twenty-three;[2][3][4] of the victims whose ages are known, the oldest victim was Providenza Panno at 43, and the youngest were 14-year-olds Kate Leone and "Sara" Rosaria Maltese.[5]

Because the owners had locked the doors to the stairwells and exits, a common practice used to prevent workers from taking unauthorized breaks and pilferage,[6] many of the workers who could not escape the burning building jumped from the eighth, ninth, and tenth floors to the streets below. The fire led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards and helped spur the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, which fought for better working conditions for sweatshop workers.

The factory was located in the Asch Building, at 23–29 Washington Place in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, now known as the Brown Building and part of New York University. The building has been designated a National Historic Landmark and a New York City landmark.[7]

Fire[edit]

A horse-drawn fire engine en route to the burning factory

The Triangle Waist Company[8] factory occupied the eighth, ninth, and tenth floors of the 10-story Asch Building on the northwest corner of Greene Street and Washington Place, just east of Washington Square Park, in the Greenwich Village area of New York City. Under the ownership of Max Blanck and Isaac Harris, the factory produced women's blouses, known as "shirtwaists." The factory normally employed about 500 workers, mostly young immigrant women, who worked nine hours a day on weekdays plus seven hours on Saturdays,[9] earning for their 52 hours of work between $7 and $12 a week,[6] the 2014 equivalent of $166 to $285 a week, or $3.20 to $5.50 per hour.[10]

As the workday was ending on the afternoon of Saturday, March 25, 1911, a fire flared up at approximately 4:40 PM in a scrap bin under one of the cutter's tables at the northeast corner of the eighth floor.[11] The first fire alarm was sent at 4:45 PM by a passerby on Washington Place who saw smoke coming from the eighth floor.[12] Both owners of the factory were in attendance and had invited their children to the factory on that afternoon.[13] The Fire Marshal concluded that the likely cause of the fire was the disposal of an unextinguished match or cigarette butt in the scrap bin, which held two months' worth of accumulated cuttings by the time of the fire.[14] Beneath the table in the wooden bin were hundreds of pounds of scraps which were left over from the several thousand shirtwaists that had been cut at that table. The scraps piled up from the last time the bin was emptied, coupled with the hanging fabrics that surrounded it; the steel trim was the only thing that was not highly flammable.[15] Although smoking was banned in the factory, cutters were known to sneak cigarettes, exhaling the smoke through their lapels to avoid detection.[16] A New York Times article suggested that the fire may have been started by the engines running the sewing machines, while The Insurance Monitor, a leading industry journal, suggested that the epidemic of fires among shirtwaist manufacturers was "fairly saturated with moral hazard."[13] No one suggested arson.[citation needed]

The building's south side, with windows marked X from which fifty women jumped
The building's east side, with 40 bodies on the sidewalk. Two of the victims were found alive an hour after the photo was taken.
"The Washington Place Fire"
An eyewitness account
00:08:09

Problems playing this file? See media help.

A bookkeeper on the eighth floor was able to warn employees on the tenth floor via telephone, but there was no audible alarm and no way to contact staff on the ninth floor.[17] According to survivor Yetta Lubitz, the first warning of the fire on the ninth floor arrived at the same time as the fire itself.[18] Although the floor had a number of exits, including two freight elevators, a fire escape, and stairways down to Greene Street and Washington Place, flames prevented workers from descending the Greene Street stairway, and the door to the Washington Place stairway was locked to prevent theft by the workers; the locked doors allowed managers to check the women's purses.[19] The foreman who held the stairway door key had already escaped by another route.[20] Dozens of employees escaped the fire by going up the Greene Street stairway to the roof. Other survivors were able to jam themselves into the elevators while they continued to operate.[citation needed]

Within three minutes, the Greene Street stairway became unusable in both directions.[21] Terrified employees crowded onto the single exterior fire escape, which city officials had allowed Asch to erect instead of the required third staircase.[15] It was a flimsy and poorly anchored iron structure which may have been broken before the fire. It soon twisted and collapsed from the heat and overload, spilling about 20 victims nearly 100 feet (30 m) to their deaths on the concrete pavement below. Elevator operators Joseph Zito[22] and Gaspar Mortillalo saved many lives by traveling three times up to the ninth floor for passengers, but Mortillalo was eventually forced to give up when the rails of his elevator buckled under the heat. Some victims pried the elevator doors open and jumped into the empty shaft, trying to slide down the cables or to land on top of the car. The weight and impacts of these bodies warped the elevator car and made it impossible for Zito to make another attempt. William Gunn Shepard, a reporter at the tragedy, would say that “I learned a new sound that day a sound more horrible than description can picture -- the thud of a speeding living body on a stone sidewalk ".[23]

A large crowd of bystanders gathered on the street, witnessing 62 people jumping or falling to their deaths from the burning building.[24] Louis Waldman, later a New York Socialist state assemblyman, described the scene years later:[25]

One Saturday afternoon in March of that year — March 25, to be precise — I was sitting at one of the reading tables in the old Astor Library... It was a raw, unpleasant day and the comfortable reading room seemed a delightful place to spend the remaining few hours until the library closed. I was deeply engrossed in my book when I became aware of fire engines racing past the building. By this time I was sufficiently Americanized to be fascinated by the sound of fire engines. Along with several others in the library, I ran out to see what was happening, and followed crowds of people to the scene of the fire.

A few blocks away, the Asch Building at the corner of Washington Place and Greene Street was ablaze. When we arrived at the scene, the police had thrown up a cordon around the area and the firemen were helplessly fighting the blaze. The eighth, ninth, and tenth stories of the building were now an enormous roaring cornice of flames.

Word had spread through the East Side, by some magic of terror, that the plant of the Triangle Waist Company was on fire and that several hundred workers were trapped. Horrified and helpless, the crowds — I among them — looked up at the burning building, saw girl after girl appear at the reddened windows, pause for a terrified moment, and then leap to the pavement below, to land as mangled, bloody pulp. This went on for what seemed a ghastly eternity. Occasionally a girl who had hesitated too long was licked by pursuing flames and, screaming with clothing and hair ablaze, plunged like a living torch to the street. Life nets held by the firemen were torn by the impact of the falling bodies.

The emotions of the crowd were indescribable. Women were hysterical, scores fainted; men wept as, in paroxysms of frenzy, they hurled themselves against the police lines.

The remainder waited until smoke and fire overcame them. The fire department arrived quickly but was unable to stop the flames, as there were no ladders available that could reach beyond the sixth floor. The fallen bodies and falling victims also made it difficult for the fire department to approach the building.

Bodies of the victims being placed in coffins on the sidewalk
People and horses draped in black walk in procession in memory of the victims

Aftermath[edit]

Although early references of the death toll ranged from 141[26] to 148,[27] almost all modern references agree that 146 people died as a result of the fire: 123 women and 23 men.[28][29][30][31][32][33][34] Most victims died of burns, asphyxiation, blunt impact injuries, or a combination of the three.[35]

The first person to jump was a man, and another man was seen kissing a young woman at the window before they both jumped to their deaths.[36]

Bodies of the victims were taken to Charities Pier (also called Misery Lane), located at 26th street and the East River, for identification by friends and relatives.[citation needed] Victims were interred in sixteen different cemeteries.[28] Twenty-two victims of the fire were buried by the Hebrew Free Burial Association in a special section at Mount Richmond Cemetery. In some instances, their tombstones refer to the fire.[37] Six victims remained unidentified until 2011.[28][29] The six victims who remained unidentified were buried together in the Cemetery of the Evergreens in Brooklyn. Originally interred elsewhere on the grounds, their remains now lie beneath a monument to the tragedy, a large marble slab featuring a kneeling woman.[38] The six unknown victims were finally identified in February 2011[28] and a grave marker placed in their memory.[39]

Consequences and legacy[edit]

The company's owners, Max Blanck and Isaac Harris, who survived the fire by fleeing to the building's roof when the fire began, were indicted on charges of first- and second-degree manslaughter in mid-April; the pair's trial began on December 4, 1911.[40] Max Steuer, counsel for the defendants, managed to destroy the credibility of one of the survivors, Kate Alterman, by asking her to repeat her testimony a number of times, which she did without altering key phrases. Steuer argued to the jury that Alterman and possibly other witnesses had memorized their statements, and might even have been told what to say by the prosecutors. The prosecution charged that the owners knew the exit doors were locked at the time in question. The investigation found that the locks were intended to be locked during working hours based on the findings from the fire,[41] but the defense stressed that the prosecution failed to prove that the owners knew that. The jury acquitted the two men, but they lost a subsequent civil suit in 1913 in which plaintiffs won compensation in the amount of $75 per deceased victim. The insurance company paid Blanck and Harris about $60,000 more than the reported losses, or about $400 per casualty. In 1913, Blanck was once again arrested for locking the door in his factory during working hours. He was fined $20.[42]

Rose Schneiderman, a prominent socialist and union activist, gave a speech at the memorial meeting held in the Metropolitan Opera House on April 2, 1911, to an audience largely made up of the members of the Women's Trade Union League. She used the fire as an argument for factory workers to organize:

Tombstone of fire victim at the Hebrew Free Burial Association's Mount Richmond Cemetery

I would be a traitor to these poor burned bodies if I came here to talk good fellowship. We have tried you good people of the public and we have found you wanting.... We have tried you citizens; we are trying you now, and you have a couple of dollars for the sorrowing mothers, brothers and sisters by way of a charity gift. But every time the workers come out in the only way they know to protest against conditions which are unbearable, the strong hand of the law is allowed to press down heavily upon us.

Public officials have only words of warning to us—warning that we must be intensely peaceable, and they have the workhouse just back of all their warnings. The strong hand of the law beats us back, when we rise, into the conditions that make life unbearable.

I can't talk fellowship to you who are gathered here. Too much blood has been spilled. I know from my experience it is up to the working people to save themselves. The only way they can save themselves is by a strong working-class movement.[43]

Others in the community, and in particular in the ILGWU,[44] drew a different lesson from events. In New York City, a Committee on Public Safety was formed, headed by Frances Perkins, a noted social worker, to identify specific problems and lobby for new legislation, such as the bill to grant workers shorter hours in a work week, known as the "54-hour Bill". The committee's representatives in Albany obtained the backing of Tammany Hall's Al Smith, the Majority Leader of the Assembly, and Robert F. Wagner, the Majority Leader of the Senate, and this collaboration of machine politicians and reformers – also known as "do-gooders" or "goo-goos" – got results, especially since Tammany's chief, Charles F. Murphy, realized the advantage to be had from being on the side of the angels.[6]

The New York State Legislature then created the Factory Investigating Commission to "investigate factory conditions in this and other cities and to report remedial measures of legislation to prevent hazard or loss of life among employees through fire, unsanitary conditions, and occupational diseases."[45] The Commission, which became Al Smith's priority,[6] held public hearings in the major cities of the state, distributed questionnaires to a wide variety of people, and hired field agents to do on-site inspections of factories.[46] New York City's Fire Chief John Kenlon told the investigators that his department had identified more than 200 factories where conditions made a fire like that at the Triangle Factory possible.[47] The State Commissions's reports helped modernize the state's labor laws, making New York State "one of the most progressive states in terms of labor reform."[48][49] New laws mandated better building access and egress, fireproofing requirements, the availability of fire extinguishers, the installation of alarm systems and automatic sprinklers, better eating and toilet facilities for workers, and limited the number of hours that women and children could work.[46] In the years from 1911 to 1913, sixty of the sixty-four new laws recommended by the Commission were legislated with the support of Governor William Sulzer.[6]

As a result of the fire, the American Society of Safety Engineers was founded in New York City on October 14, 1911.[50]

Remember the Triangle Fire Coalition[edit]

Logo

The Remember the Triangle Fire Coalition is an alliance of more than 200 organizations and individuals formed in 2008 to encourage and coordinate nationwide activities commemorating the centennial of the fire[51] and to create a permanent public art memorial to honor its victims.[52][53] The founding partners included Workers United, the New York City Fire Museum, New York University (the current owner of the building), Workmen's Circle, Museum at Eldridge Street, the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation, the Lower East Side Tenement Museum, the Gotham Center for New York City History, the Bowery Poetry Club and others. Members of the Coalition include arts organizations, schools, workers’ rights groups, labor unions, human rights and women’s rights groups, ethnic organizations, historical preservation societies, activists, and scholars, as well as families of the victims and survivors.

The Coalition grew out of a public art project called "Chalk" created by New York City filmmaker Ruth Sergel.[54] Every year beginning in 2004, Sergel and volunteer artists went across New York City on the anniversary of the fire to inscribe in chalk the names, ages, and causes of death of the victims in front of their former homes, often including drawings of flowers, tombstones or a triangle.[51][55]

Centennial[edit]

Hilda Solis, the American Secretary of Labor, seen on the overhead screen, speaking at the Centennial Memorial; the Brown (Asch) Building is on the far right.
The commemoration drew thousands of people, many holding aloft shirtwaists with the names of the victims as they listened to speakers.

From July 2009 through the weeks leading up to the 100th anniversary, the Coalition served as a clearinghouse to network some 200 activities as varied as academic conferences, films, theater performances, art shows, concerts, readings, awareness campaigns, walking tours, and parades that were held in and around New York City, and in cities across the nation, including San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, Minneapolis, Boston and Washington, D.C.[51][51]

The ceremony, which was held in front of the building where the fire took place, was preceded by a march through Greenwich Village by thousands of people, some carrying shirtwaists – women's blouses – on poles, or wearing sashes commemorating the names of those who died in the fire. Speakers included the United States Secretary of Labor, Hilda L. Solis, U.S. Senator Charles Schumer, New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, the actor Danny Glover, and Suzanne Pred Bass, the grandniece of Rosie Weiner, a young woman killed in the blaze. Most of the speakers that day called for the strengthening of workers’ rights and organized labor.[56][57]

At 4:45 PM EST, the moment the first fire alarm was sounded in 1911, hundreds of bells rang out in cities and towns across the nation. For this commemorative act, the Remember the Triangle Fire Coalition organized hundreds of churches, schools, fire houses, and private individuals in the New York City region and across the nation. The Coalition maintains on its website a national map denoting each of the bells that rang that afternoon.[58]

Permanent memorial[edit]

The Coalition has launched an effort to create a permanent public art memorial for the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire at the site of 1911 fire in lower Manhattan. In 2012, the Coalition announced a national design competition for the memorial, and formed a design search committee, with representatives from Workers United, New York University, the New York City Fire Department, the Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation & Archives, Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation, Manhattan Community Board 2, family members of the victims, historians, and community members.[59][60]

In 2011, the Coalition established that the goal of the permanent memorial would be:

  • To honor the memory of those who died from the fire;
  • To affirm the dignity of all workers;
  • To value women’s work;
  • To remember the movement for worker safety and social justice stirred by this tragedy;
  • To inspire future generations of activists

In popular culture[edit]

Films and television

  • The Crime of Carelessness (1912), 14 minute Thomas A. Edison, Inc. short inspired by the Triangle Factory fire, directed by James Oppenheim[61]
  • Children of Eve (1915), written and directed by John H. Collins[62]
  • With These Hands (1950), directed by Jack Arnold[63]
  • The Triangle Factory Fire Scandal (1979), directed by Mel Stuart, produced by Mel Brez and Ethel Brez[64]
  • Those Who Know Don't Tell: The Ongoing Battle for Workers' Health (1990), produced by Abby Ginzberg, narrated by Studs Terkel[65]
  • Episode 4 of Ric Burns' 1999 PBS series New York: A Documentary Film, "The Power and the People (1898–1918)", extensively covered the fire.
  • The Living Century: Three Miracles (2001) premiered on PBS, focusing on the life of 107-year old Rose Freedman (died 2002), who became the last living survivor of the fire.
  • American Experience: Triangle Fire (2011), documentary produced and directed by Jamila Wignot, narrated by Michael Murphy[66]
  • Triangle Remembering the Fire (2011) premiered on HBO on March 21, four days short of the 100th anniversary.
  • A door knob from the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory is an artifact in the TV series Warehouse 13, making an appearance in episodes "Past Imperfect" and "The 40th Floor" (2011).

Music

Theatre and dance

  • In Ain Gordon's play Birdseed Bundles (2000), the Triangle fire is a major dramatic engine of the story.[67]
  • The Triangle Factory Fire Project, a play written by Christopher Piehler about the fire and the trial afterward.
  • The Dark of the Flame, a play written by Evin Anderson about three sisters who work at The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory and face the fire.
  • The musical Rags – book by Joseph Stein, lyrics by Stephen Schwartz, and music by Charles Strouse – incorporates the Triangle Shirtwaist fire in the second act.
  • In March 2012, the modern dance concert One Hundred Forty-Six by Denise J. Murphy explored the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire through movement, text, video, photography and original music.[68]

Literature

  • Margaret Peterson Haddix's 2007 historical novel for young adults, Uprising, deals with immigration, women's rights, and the labor movement, with the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire as a central element.
  • Esther Friesner's Threads and Flames deals with a young girl, named Raisa, who works at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory at the time of the fire.
  • Deborah Hopkinson's 2004 historical novel for young adults, Hear My Sorrow: The Diary of Angela Denoto.
  • Mary Jane Auch's 2004 historical novel for young adults, Ashes of Roses tells the tale of Margaret Rose Nolan, a young girl who works at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory at the time of the fire, along with her sister and her friends.
  • The comic book The Goon issue #37 tells the story of a similar fire at a girdle factory that takes the lives of 142 women who worked there. After the fire, the surviving women attempt to unionize and the Goon comes to their aid after union busters try to force them back to work. Author Eric Powell specifically cites the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire as an inspiration for the story.
  • Vivian Schurfranz's novel Rachel, from the Sunfire series of historical romances for young adults, is about a Polish Jewish immigrant girl who works at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory at the time of the fire.
  • In issue #28 of the comic " The Dreaming", The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory (and the fire specifically) is featured heavily.
  • Ghosts of the fire's victims played a role in The Spider Goddess by Tara Moss.
  • Robert Pinsky's poem Shirt describes the fire.
  • "Mayn Rue Platz" (My Resting Place), a poem written by former Triangle employee Morris Rosenfeld, has been set to music, in Yiddish and English, by many artists, including Geoff Berner and June Tabor.
  • In Alice Hoffman's novel "The Museum of Extraordinary Things", the fire is one of the main elements of the plot.
  • In Mary Beth Keane's novel Fever, the main character, Mary Mallon, is one of the people watching in the street.
  • "Afterlife" a 2013 short story by Stephen King centers around Isaac Harris being in Purgatory and talking about the fire.
  • Triangle, a 2006 novel by Katharine Weber, is based around the questionable testimony of a key witness, and incorporates parts of the court transcript
  • "Coming of Age" by Lorine Kritzer Pergament is a short story about the experiences of the author's grandmother, who survived the fire. It was published in "Bridges" (2008) and republished in the on-line journal "Redux" (2014).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ "Sweatshop Tragedy Ignites Fight for Workplace Safety" on the American Postal Workers Union website
  2. ^ "Triangle Shirtwaist Fire". Jewish Women: An Historical Encyclopedia on Jewish Women's Archive
  3. ^ Stacy, Greg. "Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Marks a Sad Centennial". NPR.org via Online Journal (March 24, 2011)
  4. ^ Diner, Hasia R. "Lecture: The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire and the Shared Italian-Jewish History of New York" Italian-American Magazine (March 16, 2011)
  5. ^ Von Drehle, David. "List of Victims". Triangle: The Fire That Changed America. Retrieved November 28, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Lifflander, Matthew L. "The Tragedy That Changed New York" New York Archives (Summer 2011)
  7. ^ Harris, Gale. "Brown Building (formerly Asch Building) Designation Report" New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (March 25, 2003)
  8. ^ "Complete Transcript of Triangle Fire". Cornell University ILR School DigitalCommons@ILR. November 1, 1911. p. 22. Retrieved March 21, 2011. 
  9. ^ von Drehl, p. 105
  10. ^ CPI Inflation Calculator United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
  11. ^ von Drehle, p. 118.
  12. ^ Stein, p. 224
  13. ^ a b von Drehle, p. 163
  14. ^ Stein p.33
  15. ^ a b von Drehl, p.118
  16. ^ von Drehle, 119
  17. ^ von Drehle, 131
  18. ^ von Drehle, 141–2
  19. ^ Lange, Brenda. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, Infobase Publishing, 2008, page 58
  20. ^ PBS: "Introduction: Triangle Fire", accessed March 1, 2011
  21. ^ von Drehle, 143–4
  22. ^ von Drehle, p. 157
  23. ^ von Drehl, p.126
  24. ^ Shepherd, William G. (March 27, 1911). "Eyewitness at the Triangle". Retrieved September 2, 2007. 
  25. ^ Waldman, Labor Lawyer, E.P. Dutton & Co., pp. 32–33.
  26. ^ "141 Men and Girls Die in Waist Factory Fire". The New York Times, March 26, 1911. Accessed December 20, 2009.
  27. ^ "New York Fire Kills 148: Girl Victims Leap to Death from Factory" (reprint). Chicago Sunday Tribune. March 26, 1911. p. 1. Retrieved October 3, 2007. 
  28. ^ a b c d Berger, Joseph (February 20, 2011). "100 Years Later, the Roll of the Dead in a Factory Fire Is Complete". February 20, 2011 (New York Times). Retrieved February 21, 2011. 
  29. ^ a b von Drehle, passim
  30. ^ "In Memoriam: The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire." The New York Times, March 26, 1997.
  31. ^ "The Triangle Factory Fire". The Kheel Center, Cornell University.
  32. ^ "98th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire". New York City Fire Department.
  33. ^ "Labor Department Remembers 95th Anniversary of Sweatshop Fire". U.S. Department of Labor.
  34. ^ Stein, passim
  35. ^ von Drehle, 271–83
  36. ^ von Drehle, 155–7
  37. ^ "HFBA Timeline". Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  38. ^ "Evergreens Cemetery". Retrieved May 28, 2009.  Evergreens Cemetery reports that there were originally eight burials, one male and six females, along with some unidentified remains. One of the female victims was later identified and her body removed to another cemetery. Other accounts do not mention the unidentified remains at all. Rose Freedman was the last living survivor of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire.(1893–2001)
  39. ^ Swanson, Lillian. "A Grave Marker Unveiled for Six Triangle Fire Victims Who Had Been Unknowns" Jewish Daily Forward (April 8, 2011)
  40. ^ Stein p. 158
  41. ^ von Drehl, p.220
  42. ^ Hoenig, John M. "The Triangle Fire of 1911", History Magazine, April/May 2005.
  43. ^ Schneiderman, Rose. "We Have Found You Wanting" (reprint). 
  44. ^ Jones, Gerard (2005). Men of Tomorrow. NY: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03657-0. 
  45. ^ "Seek Way to Lessen Factory Dangers", New York Times (October 11, 1911), accessed February 8, 2011
  46. ^ a b "At the State Archives: Online Exhibit Remembers the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire" New York Archives (Summer 2011)
  47. ^ New York Times: "Factory Firetraps Found by Hundreds," October 14, 1911, accessed February 8, 2011
  48. ^ Greenwald, Richard A. The Triangle Fire, the Protocols of Peace, and Industrial Democracy in Progressive Era New York (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2005), 128
  49. ^ The Economist, "Triangle Shirtwaist: The birth of the New Deal", March 19, 2011, p. 39.
  50. ^ American Society of Safety Engineers (2001). "A Brief History of the American Society of Safety Engineers: A Century of Safety". Retrieved March 20, 2011. 
  51. ^ a b c d Greenhouse, Steven. "City Room:In a Tragedy, a Mission to Remember" New York Times (March 19, 2011)
  52. ^ Jannuzzi, Kristine. "NYU Commemorates the 100th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire". NYU Alumni Connect (January 2011) on the New York University website
  53. ^ Solis, Hilda L. "What the Triangle Shirtwaist fire means for workers now" Washington Post (March 18. 2011)
  54. ^ "Chalk website". Streetpictures.org. March 25, 1911. Retrieved August 7, 2013. 
  55. ^ Molyneux, Michael. "City Lore: Memorials in Chalk" New York Times (April 3, 2005)
  56. ^ Fouhy, Beth. "NYC marks 100th anniversary of Triangle fire" Associated Press (March 25, 2011) on MSNBC.com
  57. ^ Safronova, Valeriya and Hirshon, Nicholas. "Remembering tragic 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist inferno, marchers flood Greenwich Village streets" New York Daily News (March 26, 2011)
  58. ^ "Bells" on the Remember the Triangle Fire Coalition website
  59. ^ Swanson, Lillian. "Paying Tribute To the Fire’s Pained Legacy" Jewish Daily Forward (March 4, 2011)
  60. ^ Saulnier, Beth. "Mass Appeal" Cornell Alumni Magazine (March/April 2011)
  61. ^ The Crime of Carelessness at the Internet Movie Database
  62. ^ IMDb: Children of Eve (1915) Retrieved July 10, 2012.
  63. ^ With These Hands at the Internet Movie Database, accessed February 18, 2011
  64. ^ "Triangle Factory Fire Scandal (TV 1979)". Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  65. ^ "Those Who Know Don't Tell". Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  66. ^ "Triangle Fire". Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  67. ^ Lefkowitz, David. "OOB's DTW Runs Out of Birdseed, April 2". Playbill.com
  68. ^ "One Hundred Forty-Six: A Moving Memorial to the Victims of the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire" on the Remember the Triangle Fire website

Bibliography

Further reading

External links[edit]

General

Contemporaneous accounts

Trial

Articles

Memorials and centennial