Tribal colleges and universities
Tribal colleges and universities are a category of higher education, minority-serving institutions in the United States. (In Canada, the first tribal college was established in 1995.) The educational institutions are distinguished by being controlled and operated by Native American tribes; they have become part of American Indians' institution-building in order to pass on their own cultures. The first was founded by the Navajo Nation in 1968 in Arizona, and several others were established in the 1970s. As of 1994, they have been authorized by Congress as land-grant colleges.
Most tribal colleges are located on or near Indian reservations and provide access to post-secondary education, accredited degrees, and vocational training for both Indian and non-Indian students. The first was established in 1968 by the Navajo Nation on their reservation in Arizona. Several other tribal colleges were established in the 1970s and enrollment has steadily increased.
Indian culture and tradition have become a part of the curricula since the 1970s, when many of the colleges were established. These institutions face problems similar to those of other rural educational institutions: recruitment and retention of students and faculty, and curriculum issues. Lack of funding, along with minimal resources of some tribes, are additional obstacles. For some Native American nations, revenues from casino gambling have aided in their building educational institutions.
In general, enrollment has increased significantly, particularly in areas where reservations have significant populations. In 1982, the total enrollment at tribal colleges in the United States was approximately 2,100. By 2003, it had increased to 30,000. This also reflects a return to reservations by numerous Native Americans, for instance, on the Great Plains. By contrast, California's tribal college, D-Q University west of Davis, California, was struggling with six students in 2006.
In 1994 under the Elementary and Secondary Education Reauthorization Act, the tribal colleges were authorized by the US Congress as land-grant colleges. Most offer two-year degrees, although six are four-year institutions, and two have master's degree programs. Several colleges, such as the College of the Menominee Nation, have developed transfer agreements with affiliated state universities to allow students who graduate from the two-year tribal college to receive junior status at the state university system. Sinte Gleska University in South Dakota has a master's program affiliated with Red Crow Community College and Canadian universities in Alberta, Canada.
The American Indian Higher Education Consortium, founded in 1972, represents 32 tribal colleges in the US and one in Canada. The organization is jointly governed by presidents from the member institutions.
Special programs 
Based in Huntsville, Alabama, Tribal Earth Science & Technology Education (TRESTE) is a NASA-funded team of nine tribal higher education institutions and the Universities Space Research Association's Earth System Science Program. The collaboration is designed to enhance Earth system science and geospatial education using problem-based teaching techniques in order to inspire undergraduate students for careers in Earth system science, the physical sciences, and other fields of engineering or science.
Alternate tribal higher education programs are available, including the Tribal College Librarians Institute (TCLI), a week-long professional development experience for U.S. and Canadian tribal college librarians.
The award-winning Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education is a culture-based publication addressing issues in American Indian and Alaska higher education with articles by journalists and scholars. It provides a forum for tribal students, staff, faculty, and college administrators to discuss their needs, successes, and missions.
The American Indian College Fund, originally located in New York City, but now based in Denver, Colorado, provides scholarships for US tribal colleges and universities. Foundation and private-sector donations are crucial to its success. Its mission is to transform Indian higher education through funding and awareness of the community-based, accredited tribal colleges and universities, while offering student access to knowledge, skills, and cultural values in order to enhance both the communities they serve and the country as a whole.
Other scholarship programs abound, including many that are unique to a specific program, geographic area or tribe. Examples are the Tribal Training Grant, Tribal Higher Education Scholarship program, Alyeska Match Scholarship. and Intertribal Higher Education Program.
The Native American Journalists Association (NAJA), founded by the Oglala Lakota Tim Giago, has a foundation offering scholarships and internships to Native American students in journalism. It also sponsors three seminars annually for working Native American journalists and those in the business end.
Legal codes 
Specific Executive Orders govern Indian tribe higher education operations in the United States:
- E.O. 13021 Tribal Colleges and Universities
- E.O. 13096 American Indian and Alaska Native Education
Title 25 of the United States Code defines the role of Indians in the United States Code:
See also 
- Marjane Ambler, "While globalizing their movement, tribal colleges import ideas", Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education, Vol. 16 No.4 , Summer 2005, accessed 7 July 2011
- Higher Education Forum (2004-07-22). "2nd Annual Washington State/Tribal Indian Education Summit". washington.edu. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Webster, Lori (July 2003). "Tribal Colleges and Universities: Guided by Tribal Values, Advancing Academic Study". Diversity Digest (diversityweb.org) 7 (1 & 2).
- Hindery, Robin (2006-08-12). "California's only tribal college close to collapse after 35 years". Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "AIHEC's History and Mission". aihec.org. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "TRibal Earth Science & Technology Education (TRESTE) Program". nasa.gov. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "A History of the Tribal College Journal". tribalcollegejournal.org. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "About Us". collegefund.org. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "Tribal Higher Education Scholarships for Alaskan Natives". aaanativearts.com. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "Tribal Higher Education Program". /indiancommission.state.nv.us. p. 1. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Tim Giago, "Freedom of the Press in Indian Country", Nieman Reports: Covering Indian Country, Fall 2005, accessed 29 June 2011