Tribhuvan of Nepal

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Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
King of Nepal
Tribhuvan.jpg
King Tribhuvan of Nepal
Coronation 20 February 1913
Reign 11 December 1911 – 7 November 1950
Predecessor Prithvi Bikram
Successor Mahendra
Reign 18 February 1951 – 13 March 1955
Predecessor Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
Successor Mahendra
Spouse Kanti Rajya Laxmi Devi Shah
Ishwari Rajya Laxmi Devi Shah
Full name
Shree Paanch Maharajadhiraj Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah Dev
Dynasty Shah dynasty
Father Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah
Mother Divyeshwari Laxmi Devi Shah
Born (1906-06-30)30 June 1906
Kathmandu, Nepal
Died 13 March 1955(1955-03-13) (aged 48)
Zürich, Switzerland
Religion Hinduism

Tribhuwan Bir Bikram Shah.(त्रिभुवन वीर विक्रम शाह), (June 23, 1906 – March 13, 1955) was King of Nepal from 11 December 1911 until his death (not considering his exile from 7 November 1950 to 18 February 1951). Born in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, he ascended to the throne at the age of five, upon the death of his father, King Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah, and crowned on 20 February 1913 at the Nasal Chowk, Hanuman Dhoka Palace in Kathmandu, with his mother acting as regent. At the time, however, the position of monarch was mainly titular, with real power in the country residing in the powerful, conservative Rana family, which supplied the country with its hereditary prime minister. The Rana period is known for the tyranny, debauchery, economic exploitation and religious persecution by the rulers.[1][2]

Family[edit]

King Tribhuvan was born on June 23, 1906 to Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah and Queen Divyeshwari Laxmi Devi Shah. After the death of his father, Tribhuvan Bir Birkarm Shah ascended the throne on December 11, 1911, at the age of five. Queen Mother Laxmi Divyeshwari Devi was appointed the regent until King Tribhuvan would come to his age. He married first at the Narayanhiti Royal Palace, Katmandu, March 1919, H.M. Svasti Sri Ojaswi Rajanya Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Sriman Maharajadhiraja Patta Rajninam Bada Maharani Kanti Rajya Lakshmi Devi Shahanam Sada Saubhajnabatinam [H.M. Queen Kanti]. He also married on, March 1919, H.M. Svasti Sri Ojawsi-Rajanya Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Sriman Maharajadhiraja Patta Rajninam Kancha Maharani Ishwari Rajya Lakshmi Devi Shahanam Sada Saubhajnabatinam [H.M. Queen Ishwari]. He also had junior wives.

King Tribhuvan had three sons and thirteen daughters. They include:

  • 1) H.M. Svasti Sri Giriraja Chakra Chudamani Narayanetyadi Vividha Virudavali Virajamana Manonnata Shriman Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Maharajadhiraja Mahendra Bir Bikram Jang Bahadur Shah Bahadur Shamsher Jang Devanam Sada Samaja Vijayinam, King of Nepal (by Queen Kanti) born in 1920.
  • 2) Colonel H.R.H. Ojawsi-Rajanya Maha-Gaurabmaya-Tejasvi-Tribhuvan-Prajatantra-Shripada Supradipta-Manyabara-Nepal-Tara Om-Ram-Patta Prince (Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Adhirajkumar) Himalaya Pratap Bir Bikram Shah, GCMG (by Queen Kanti) born in 1921.
  • 3) Colonel H.R.H. Maha-Gaurabmaya-Tejasvi-Tribhuvan-Prajatantra-Shripada Supradipta-Manyabara-Nepal-Tara Om-Ram-Patta Prince (Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Adhirajkumar) Basundhara Bir Bikram Shah, GCMG (by Queen Ishwari) born in 1921.

The daughters include:

  • 1) H.R.H. Princess (Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Adhirajkumari) Trilokya Rajya Lakshmi Devi (by Queen Kanti) born in 1922.
  • 2) H.R.H. Princess (Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Adhirajkumari) Nalini Rajya Lakshmi Devi (H.R.H. the Rani Sahiba of Poonch) (by Queen Ishwari) born in 1924.
  • 3) H.R.H. Princess (Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Adhirajkumari) Vijaya Rajya Lakshmi Devi (by Queen Kanti)born in 1925.
  • 4) H.R.H. Princess (Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Adhirajkumari) Bharati Rajya Lakshmi Devi (H.R.H. the Rajmata of Mayurbhanj) (by Queen Kanti) born in 1927.

Children of junior wives include:

  • 5) Rajya Lakshmi Devi.
  • 6) Rajkumari Dibyeshwari Rajya Lakshmi Devi (Dr. Dibya Shree Malla).
  • 7) Rajkumari Praja Rajya Lakshmi Devi.
  • 8) Rajkumari Achala Rajya Lakshmi Devi.
  • 9) Rajkumari Tika Rajya Lakshmi Devi.
  • 10) Rajkumari Bimala Rajya Lakshmi Devi.

Three unnamed daughters of King Tribhuvan perished during the Great Earthquake, at the Narayanhiti Royal Palace, Katmandu, 15 January 1934.[3]

Later life[edit]

Tensions between the royal family and the Ranas came to a head during World War I. The Ranas wanted to join the war in support of Britain, which controlled India to the south. The prime minister, HH Maharaja Sri Chandra Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana always had his way with the young king, who eventually ordered the troops to go to war.

By the mid-1930s, popular discontent with the Ranas led to the establishment of several movements, notably the Praja Parishad, to which Tribhuvan himself gave explicit support, to overthrow the Ranas. In each instance, however, the Ranas responded harshly, banning the liberal movements and executing their leadership.

King Tribhuvan worked closely with Praja Parishad to abolish the Rana regime. In November, 1950, King Tribhuvan took refuge at the Indian Embassy in a campaign aimed at removing the Rana oligarchy from power, which had ruled Nepal for more than a century. He was accompanied by his son Mahendra and the eldest grandson Birendra, among others. Prime Minister Sir Tin Maharaja, Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana became furious and responded to Tribhuvan's move by calling an emergency meeting of the cabinet on 7 November 1950 at Singha Durbar. In that meeting he announced Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah, the three year old grandson of King Tribhuvan as the new King of Nepal. In the afternoon, on the same day, Prince Gyandendra Bir Bikram Shah was brought to Hanuman Dhoka Palace and crowned as the king of Nepal.[4] On 10 November, two Indian planes landed at Gauchar Airport and flew back to New Delhi with the Royal family excluding the infant King, Gyanendra. King Tribhuvan was formally welcomed by the Indian prime minister Jawahar Lal Nehru and other high officials. The removal of the king led to huge demonstrations in the country that compelled the Rana prime minister, Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana to come into negotiations with Tribhuvan and the Nepali Congress. On November 22, 1950, Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India, officially announced that India was not going to recognize Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah as the legitimate King of Nepal. When Mohan Shumsher saw that the situation was out of his control, he sent the king's brother-in-law,[5] Sir Kaiser Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana and Bijaya Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana to New Delhi for peace talks. In New Delhi, King Tribhuvan, representatives of Nepali Congress and of the Rana Government all sat together to discuss the situation. At last an agreement was reached according to which King Tribhuvan to form a new ministry, under his leadership, consisting of the Nepali Congress and the Ranas on an equal basis, King Tribhuvan flew back to Nepal, along with the members of the Royal family and the leaders of the Congress Party on 15 February 1951. On February 18, 1951, King Tribhuvan returned from India as the monarch. Three days after the return, Tribhuvan formally declared an end to Rana's family rule and established a democratic system, but Mohan Shamsher continued as a prime minister for a few more months.

Congress Rana Government[edit]

According to the New Delhi Agreement, King Tribhuvan announced on 13 February 1951, a cabinet headed by Sir Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana. The followings were the members of the Cabinet.

From the Rana clan:

  • 1. Sir Mohan Shamsher - Prime minister and Foreign Affairs.
  • 2. Sir Baber Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana- (younger brother of Mohan Shamsher; was in line for the next premiership) - Defence.
  • 3. Chudraj Shamsher - ("B" class Rana representative) - Forests.
  • 4. Nripa Janga Rana - ("C" class Rana representative) - Education.
  • 5. Yagya Bahadur Basnyat - (Rana Bhardar) - Health and Local self-government.

From the Nepali Congress side:

  • 1. Subarna Shamsher Rana- (even though a Rana, he represented the Nepali Congress) - Finance.
  • 2. B.P. Koirala - Home.
  • 3. Ganesh Man Singh - Commerce and Industry
  • 4. Bharatmani Sharma - Food and Agriculture
  • 5. Bhadrakali Mishra - Transport.
  • 6. ram ashis yadav -

This cabinet was reshuffled in 10 June 1951 to replace Baber Shamsher by Shangha Shamsher and Bharatmani Sharma by Surya Prasad Upadhyaya. This cabinet was dissolved in November 1951 and MP Koirala became the new Prime Minister.[6]

Death[edit]

King Tribhuvan died in 1955 in Zürich, Switzerland under mysterious circumstances. He was aged 48. He was succeeded by his eldest legitimate son Mahendra.

The international airport in Kathmandu, Tribhuvan International Airport,the oldest highway in Nepal Tribhuvan Highway, the 2nd oldest association football tournament in Nepal, Tribhuvan Challenge Shield, a city, Tribhuvannagar in Dang valley, and the country's largest university (Tribhuvan University) are named after him.

Honours[edit]

National orders
Foreign Honours
Tribhuvan of Nepal
Born: 30 June 1892 Died: 13 March 1955
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Prithvi
King of Nepal
1911–1950
Succeeded by
Gyanendra
Preceded by
Gyanendra
King of Nepal
1951–1955
Succeeded by
Mahendra

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dietrich, Angela (1996). "Buddhist Monks and Rana Rulers: A History of Persecution". Buddhist Himalaya: A Journal of Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  2. ^ Lal, C. K. (16 February 2001). "The Rana resonance". Nepali Times. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  3. ^ http://www.royalark.net/Nepal/nepal10.htm
  4. ^ http://cheena-nepal.blogspot.com/2009/06/king-tribhuvan-and-fall-of-ranas.html
  5. ^ http://www.royalark.net/Nepal/nepal9.htm
  6. ^ https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/soc.culture.nepal/nfG1DGYD0a4