|Dyah Gitarja (Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi)|
|Monarch of Majapahit Empire|
The statue of Tribhuwanottungadewi, queen of Majapahit, depicted as Parvati
|Reign||Majapahit: 1328 – 1350|
|Titles||Sri Tribhuwanotunggadewi Maharajasa Jayawisnuwardhani|
|Consort||Cakradhara (Kertawardhana Bhre Tumapel)|
|Father||Raden Harsawijaya (Kertajasa Jayawardhana)|
|Mother||Dyah Gayatri (Rajapatni)|
Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi or known in her regnal name Tribhuwannottunggadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, or also known as Dyah Gitarja, was a Javanese queen regnant and the third monarch of the Majapahit empire, reigning from 1328 to 1350. She appointed Gajah Mada as prime minister and pursued massive expansion of the empire.
She was the daughter of Raden Wijaya, the first king of Majapahit, and his consort Dyah Gayatri Rajapatni. She was the mother and predecessor to Hayam Wuruk, the fourth monarch of the Majapahit empire. She also bears the title Bhre Kahuripan (Duchess of Kahuripan). Tribhuwana is member of the Rajasa dynasty, rulers of Majapahit and its predecessor Singhasari Kingdom. From her mother's side, she was also granddaughter of Kertanegara, the last ruler of Singhasari.
According to Nagarakretagama, Tribhuawana came to the throne by the order of her mother (Gayatri) in 1329 replacing Jayanegara who was killed in 1328. Tribhuwana's reign ended as Gayatri died in 1350. Tribhuwana governed with the help of her husband, Kertawardhana.
In 1331, she led the army herself to the battle field with the help of her cousin, Adityawarman to crush rebellion in the areas of Sadeng and Keta. The decision partly to resolve the competition between Gajah Mada and Ra Kembar for the army general position to crush Sadeng.
Tribhuwana's reign is famous for the expansion of Majapahit. In 1343 Majapahit conquered the Kingdom of Pejeng (Bali), Dalem Bedahulu, and the entire island of Bali. Adityawarman was sent to conquer the rest of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya and the Kingdom of Melayu in 1347. He was then promoted as uparaja (lower king) of Majapahit for the area of Sumatra. Majapahit expansion continued under the reign of Hayam Wuruk, reaching Lamuri (present day Aceh) on the west side and Wanin (Onin Peninsula, Papua) on the east side.
- Bullough, Nigel (1995). Historic East Java: Remains in Stone. Adline Communications.
- Pringle, Robert (2004). Bali: Indonesia's Hindu Realm; A short history of. Short History of Asia Series. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-863-3.
|Monarch of Majapahit Empire
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