Tributyltin hydride

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Tributyltin hydride
Skeletal formula of tributyltin with one explicit hydrogen added
Spacefill model of tributyltin
Ball and stick model of tributyltin
Names
Systematic IUPAC name
Tributylstannane[1]
Identifiers
3587329
688-73-3 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:27086 N
ChemSpider 5734 N
EC number 211-704-4
4258
Jmol-3D images Image
MeSH Tributyltin
PubChem 5948
Properties
SnC
12
H
28
Molar mass 291.06 g mol−1
Density 1.082 g cm−3
Boiling point 80 °C (176 °F; 353 K) at 50 Pa
Slowly reacts[citation needed]
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Tributyltin hydride is an organotin compound with the formula (C4H9)3SnH. It is a colorless liquid that is soluble in organic solvents. The compound is used as a source of hydrogen atoms in organic synthesis.

Synthesis & Characterization[edit]

The compound is produced by reduction of tributyltin oxide with polymethylhydrosiloxane (Bu = CH3CH2CH2CH2):[2][3]

2"(MeSiH)" + (Bu3Sn)2O → "(Me2Si2O" + 2 Bu3SnH
(Bu3Sn)2O + 2/n (MeSi(H)O)n → 2 Bu3SnH + 1/n [(MeSiO)2O]n

The hydride is a distillable liquid that is mildly sensitive to air, decomposing to (Bu3Sn)2O. Its IR spectrum exhibits a strong band at 1814 cm−1 for νSn-H.

Applications[edit]

It is a useful reagent in organic synthesis. Combined with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) or by irradiation with light, tributyltin hydride converts organic halides (and related groups) to the corresponding hydrocarbon. This process occurs via a radical chain mechanism involving the radical Bu3Sn.[4][5] The radical abstracts a H• from another equivalent of tributyltin hydride, propagating the chain. Tributyltin hydride's utility as a H• donor can be attributed to its relatively weak bond strength (78 kcal/mol).[6] Recently, transition metal hydrides have emerged as attractive alternatives to tin hydrides, as transition metal hydrides can be used catalytically and have more variety in bond strength.

See also[edit]

Tris(trimethylsilyl)silane: R=H

References[edit]

  1. ^ "SnBu3H - PubChem Public Chemical Database". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 
  2. ^ Hayashi, K.; Iyoda, J.; Shiihara, I. "Reaction of organotin oxides, alkoxides and acyloxides with organosilicon hydrides. New preparative method of organotin hydrides " J. Organomet. Chem. 1967, 10, 81. doi:10.1016/S0022-328X(00)81719-2
  3. ^ Jordi Tormo and Gregory C. Fu (2002). "Tributylstannane (Bu3SnH)-Catalyzed Barton-McCombie deoxygenation of Alcohols: 3-Deoxy-1,2:5,6-bis-O-(1-methylethyilidine)-α-D-ribo-hexafuranose". Org. Synth. 78: 239. 
  4. ^ OUP catalogue page, J. Clayden, N. Greeves, S. Warren and P. Wothers, in Organic Chemistry, 2000, OUP, Oxford, ch. 39, pp. 1040-1041.
  5. ^ T. V. (Babu) RajanBabu, Philip C. Bulman Page, Benjamin R. Buckley, "Tri-n-butylstannane" Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis 2004, John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rt181.pub2
  6. ^ Laarhoven, L. J. J.; Mulder, P.; Wayner, D.D. M. "Determination of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies in Solution by Photoacoustic Calorimetry" Acc. Chem. Res. 1999, 32, 342 doi:10.1021/ar9703443