Tricholomataceae

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Tricholomataceae
Temporal range: Turonian–recent
[1]
Tricholoma flavovirens.jpg
Tricholoma flavovirens, near Wellfleet, Massachusetts, USA
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Tricholomataceae
R.Heim ex Pouzar (1983)
Type genus
Tricholoma
(Fr.) Staude (1857)
Genera
78

The Tricholomataceae are a large family of mushrooms within the Agaricales. A classic "wastebasket taxon", the family is inclusive of any white-, yellow-, or pink-spored genera in the Agaricales not already classified as belonging to the Amanitaceae, Lepiotaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Pluteaceae, or Entolomataceae.

The name derives from the Greek trichos (τριχος) meaning hair and loma (λωμα) meaning fringe or border, although not all members display this feature.[2]

Arnolds (1986) and Bas (1990) also place the genera of the Hygrophoraceae within this family, but this classification is not accepted by the majority of fungal taxonomists.[3]

Molecular phylogenetic analysis has greatly aided in the demarcation of clear monophyletic groups among the Tricholomataceae. So far, most of these groups have been defined cladistically rather than being defined as formal Linnean taxa, though there have been several cases in which older proposed segregates from the Tricholomataceae have been validated by evidence coming from molecular phylogenetics. As of 2006, validly published families segregated from the Tricholomataceae include the Hydnangiaceae, Lyophyllaceae, Marasmiaceae, Mycenaceae, Omphalotaceae, Physalacriaceae, and Pleurotaceae.

The name "Tricholomataceae" is nevertheless seen as having validity in describing Tricholoma and its close relatives, and whatever other genera can at some future point be described as part of a monophyletic family including Tricholoma. To that end, the International Botanical Congress has voted on two occasions (1988 and 2006) to conserve the name "Tricholomataceae" against competing names.[4] This decision does not invalidate the use of segregate families from the Tricholomataceae, but simply validates the continued use of Tricholomataceae.[5]

The extinct genus Archaeomarasmius, described from Turonian-age New Jersey amber,[1] is one of four known genera of Agaricales in the fossil record.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hibbett, D.S.; Grimaldi, D.S. & Donoghue, M.J. (1997). "Fossil mushrooms from Miocene and Cretaceous ambers and the evolution of Homobasidiomycetes". American Journal of Botany 84 (8): 981–991. doi:10.2307/2446289. 
  2. ^ Nilson, Sven; Olle Persson (1977). Fungi of Northern Europe 2: Gill-Fungi. Penguin. p. 24. ISBN 0-14-063006-6. 
  3. ^ Young, 2003
  4. ^ (Redhead 2003, McNeill, et al. 2006)
  5. ^ (Young, 2002)
  6. ^ Hibbett, D.S.; et al. (2003). "Another fossil agaric from Dominican Amber". Mycologia 95 (4): 685–687. doi:10.2307/3761943. JSTOR 3761943. PMID 21148976.  (subscription required)
  • Alexopolous CJ, et al. (2004). Introductory Mycology (4th ed.) Hoboken NJ: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-52229-5
  • Arnolds E. (1986).
  • Bas C. (1990). Tricholomataceae R.Heim ex Pouz. In: Flora Agaricina Neerlandica 2:65. ISBN 90-6191-971-1
  • Kuo M. (2004). The Tricholomataceae. MushroomExpert.Com (website).
  • McNeill J, Redhead SA, Wiersema JH. (2006). Report of the General Committee: 9. Taxon 55(3):795–800.
  • Redhead SA. (2003). (1571) Proposal to conserve the name Tricholomataceae nom. cons. against two additional names, Mycenaceae and Hygrophoraceae (Fungi). Taxon 52(1):135–136.
  • Young AM. (2002) Brief notes on the status of Family Hygrophoraceae Lotsy. Australasian Mycologist 21(3):114–116.