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Tricyrtis hirta - blossom top (aka).jpg
Tricyrtis hirta
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae
Subfamily: Calochortoideae
Genus: Tricyrtis

See text.

Tricyrtis is a genus of flowering plants in the botanical family Liliaceae, with approximately eighteen species. The species are commonly known in English as Toad lilies. It has a native range from the Himalayas to eastern Asia, including China,[1] Japan,[2] Philippines and Formosa,[3] and a few species are cultivated for their ornamental qualities in other parts of the world.


Tricyrtis are herbaceous perennials with creeping rhizomes. The stems are typically erect or maybe ascending, and sometimes branched from the middle to the top. The subsessile leaves are arranged alternately along the stems. The inflorescences are most commonly thyrse or thyrsoid, or rarely the flowers are arranged into a raceme. The showy, solitary flowers are bisexual. Perianth campanulate or trumpet-shaped with six free tepals arranged into two whorls: the outer whorl has nectar secreting pouches, while the inner whorl has upright tepals with dorsal crests.[4] The tepals are white or yellow with purplish spots, usually recurved or reflexed. The six stamens are inserted at base of the tepals, and the filaments are slightly flattened, forming a short tube. The anthers are dorsifixed. The three-loculed ovary have many ovules per locule. The styles are arranged into a column. The three-angled fruits are broadly cylindrical capsules and when ripe release many small, flat, ovate to orbicular shaped seeds.[5]


Species include:


Tricyrtis species are perennial herbaceous plants that grow at the edge of forests. They prefer shade or part shade and rich, moist soil. Toad Lilies bloom in summer to fall. They are hardy enough to handle sudden changes of winter from mild to blustery cold.[8]


  1. ^ "Tricyrtis Wallich". Flora of China. 
  2. ^ Maki, Masayuki; Morita, Hiroko; Oiki, Syuji; Takahashi, Hiroshi (1999). "The Effect of Geographic Range and Dichogamy on Genetic Variability and Population Genetic Structure in Tricyrtis Section Flavae (Liliaceae)". American Journal of Botany (Botanical Society of America) 86 (2): 287–292. doi:10.2307/2656945. JSTOR 2656945. PMID 21680367. 
  3. ^ George Schmid, W. (2002). An encyclopedia of shade perennials. Portland, Or.: Timber Press. p. 312. ISBN 0-88192-549-7. 
  4. ^ Ronse De Craene. Floral Diagrams: An Aid to Understanding Flower Morphology and Evolution. Cambridge University Press. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-1-139-48455-8. 
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b Masayuki Maki, Hiroko Morita, Syuji Oiki and Hiroshi Takahashi. 1999. The effect of geographic range and dichogamy on genetic variability and population genetic structure in Tricyrtis section Flavae (Liliaceae). Am J. Bot. 86: 287-292.
  7. ^ Ching-I PENG, Choon-Lin TIANG & Tsai-Wen HSU (2007), "Tricyrtis ravenii (Liliaceae), a new species from Taiwan" , Botanical Studies 48: 357-364.
  8. ^ Cox, Jeff (1998 by Rodale Press) Perennial All-Stars: The 150 Best Perennials for Great-Looking, Trouble-Free Gardens, pg. 305