Tridax procumbens, commonly known as coat buttons or tridax daisy, is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family. It is best known as a widespread weed and pest plant. It is native to the tropical Americas but it has been introduced to tropical, subtropical, and mild temperate regions worldwide. It is listed as a noxious weed in the United States and has pest status in nine states.
The plant bears daisylike yellow-centered white or yellow flowers with three-toothed ray florets. The leaves are toothed and generally arrowhead-shaped. Its fruit is a hard achene covered with stiff hairs and having a feathery, plumelike white pappus at one end. Calyx is represented by scales or reduced to pappus. The plant is invasive in part because it produces so many of these achenes, up to 1500 per plant, and each achene can catch the wind in its pappus and be carried some distance. This weed can be found in fields, meadows, croplands, disturbed areas, lawns, and roadsides in areas with tropical or semi-tropical climates.
A new flavonoid (procumbenetin), isolated from the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens, has been characterised as 3,6-dimethoxy-5,7,2',3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone 7-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside (1) on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and by chemical means. Tridax procumbens; Flavonoids Plant. Uses in traditional medicine. Commonly used in Indian traditional medicine as anticoagulant, hair tonic, antifungal and insect repellent, in bronchial catarrh, diarrhoea, dysentery, and wound healing. Previously isolated constituents. Alkyl esters, sterols, pentacyclic triterpenes, fatty acids and polysaccharides. New isolated constituent. 3,6-Dimethoxy-5,7,2',3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone 7-O-β- D-glucopyranoside (1), named procumbetin Žyield: 0.016% on dried basis.
Tridax procumbens is known for several potential therapeutic activities like antiviral, anti oxidant antibiotic efficacies, wound healing activity, insecticidal and anti-inflammatory activity. Some reports from tribal areas in India state that the leaf juice can be used to cure fresh wounds, to stop bleeding, as a hair tonic. Despite these known benefits, it is still listed in the United States as a Noxious Weed and regulated under the Federal Noxious Weed Act.
A study by Gamboa-Leon (2014) showed that a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum extracts was a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and that its healing effects made it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine. The mixture of Tridax procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling Leishmania mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice.
Whole plant ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens showed significant anti-arthritic effect, antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects in rats using the Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) model and streptozotocin-induced diabetic model.
Traditionally, Tridax procumbens has been in use in India for wound healing, as anticoagulant, antifungal and insect repellent. It is also used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Its leaf extracts were known to treat infectious skin diseases in folk medicines. It is a well-known ayurvedic medicine for liver disorders or hepato-protective nature besides gastritis and heart burn.
In humans, Tridax procumbens used as treatment for boils, blisters and cuts by local healers in Nalgonda and Warangal District of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, India. A study had found anti-cancer properties of Tridax procumbens against human prostate epithelial cancer cell line PC 3.
A study was carried out to verify the claims wherein tribal inhabitants of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were using the plant for treatment of diabetes. It was concluded that the results were comparable to that of reference standard Glibenclamide and the Tridax procumbens flower extract showed antidiabetic properties.
Phatak et al., (1991) has investigated the hair growth promoting activity of Tridax procumbens and the petroleum ether extract of Tridax procumbens was found to be effective in promoting hair growth in male wistar albino rats.
Its common names include coat buttons and tridax daisy in English, jayanthi in Kannada, cadillo chisaca in Spanish, herbe caille in French, jayanti veda in Sanskrit, ghamra in Hindi, bishalya karani (ବିଶଲ୍ୟକରଣୀ) in Oriya, kambarmodi in Marathi, gaddi chemanthi (గడ్డి చామంతి) in Telugu,vettukaaya poondu in Tamil, and kotobukigiku in Japanese,
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- Tridax procumbens L. at the Encyclopedia of Life
- Gamboa-Leon, Rubi; Vera-Ku, Marina; Peraza-Sanchez, Sergio R.; Ku-Chulim, Carlos; Horta-Baas, Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel (2014). "Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbensand Allium sativumin mice". Parasite 21: 15. doi:10.1051/parasite/2014016. PMC 3980668. PMID 24717526.
- Petchi, Rramesh; Vijaya, C; Parasuraman, S (2013). "Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in Sprague Dawley rats". Pharmacognosy Research 5 (2): 113–7. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.110541. PMC 3685759. PMID 23798886.
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- Petchi, Rameshr; Parasuraman, S; Vijaya, C (2013). "Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy 4 (4): 88–92. doi:10.4103/0976-0105.121655. PMC 3979266. PMID 24808679.
- Wani, Minal; Pande, Snehal; More, Nitin (2010). "Callus induction studies in Tridax procumbens L." (PDF). International Journal of Biotechnology Applications 2 (1): 11–4.
- Nallella, Sreeramulu; Suthari, Sateesh; Ragan, A; Raju, Vatsavaya S (2013). "Ethno-botanico-medicine for common human ailments in Nalgonda and Warangal districts of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, India". Annals of Plant Science 2 (7): 220–9.
- Priya, PV; Radhika, K; Kumar, SR; Ramchandra, SM; Devi, PY; Rao, AS (2011). "Evaluation of Anti-Cancer Activity of Tridax procumbens flower extracts on PC 3 Cell Lines" (PDF). Pharmanest 2 (1): 28–30.
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- Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2