UGM-133 Trident II
|UGM-133A Trident II|
A Trident II launch from a submerged Royal Navy submarine.
|Place of origin||United States|
|In service||March 1990|
|Used by||United States Navy
|Manufacturer||Lockheed Martin Space Systems|
|Unit cost||$37,320,070 (2014)|
|Weight||130,000 lb (59,000 kg)|
|Length||44 ft 6.6 in (13.579 m)|
|Diameter||6 ft 11 in (2.11 m) (1st stage)|
|Warhead||Multiple W88 or W76 thermonuclear weapons|
|Engine||Three Solid-fuel rocket motors; first & second stage - Thiokol/Hercules solid-fueled rocket; third stage - United Technologies Corp. solid-fueled rocket|
|Propellant||Nitrate ester, Plasticized Polyethylene Glycol|
|With full load 7,840 kilometres (4,230 nmi);
with reduced load approx. 11,300 km (6,100 nmi) (exact is classified)
|Speed||Approximately 18,030 mph (29,020 km/h) (Mach 24; 8,060 m/s)(terminal phase)|
|MK 6 Astro-inertial guidance|
|Single Movable Nozzle Actuated by a Gas Generator|
|Accuracy||90–120 m (300–390 ft) CEP|
|ballistic missile submarine|
The UGM-133A Trident II, or Trident D5 is a submarine-launched ballistic missile, built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Sunnyvale, California, and deployed with the US and Royal Navies. It was first deployed in March 1990, and is still in service. The Trident II Strategic Weapons System is an improved Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile with greater accuracy, payload, and range than the Trident C-4, strengthening U.S. strategic deterrence. The Trident II is considered to be a durable sea-based system capable of engaging many targets. It enhances the U.S. position in strategic arms negotiation with performance and payload flexibility that can accommodate active treaty initiatives (See New START). The TRIDENT II's increased payload allows nuclear deterrence to be accomplished with fewer submarines.
Trident II missiles are carried by 14 US Ohio and 4 British Vanguard-class submarines, with 24 missiles on each Ohio class and 16 missiles on each Vanguard class. USS Tennessee (SSBN-734) was the first submarine to be armed with Trident IIs, and there have been 150 successful test flights  of the D5 missile since 1989, the most recent being from the USS West Virginia (SSBN-736) in June 2014.
It is estimated that 540 missiles will be built by 2013. The Trident D5LE (life-extension) version will remain in service until 2042.
The Trident II was designated to be the latest longer-range missile, performing greater than its predecessor (Trident C-4). In 1972, the US Navy projected an initial operating capability (IOC) date for the Trident II in 1984. The US Navy continued to advance the IOC date to 1982. On 18 October 1973, a Trident program review was administered. On 14 March 1974, the US Deputy Secretary of Defense disseminated two requirements for the Trident program. The first was an accuracy improvement for the Trident C-4. The second requirement asked for an alternative to the C-4, or a new Trident II missile with a larger first stage motor than the C-4.
Studies were conducted to determine whether the more-expensive Trident II could be constructed similar to the US Air Force's MX ICBM. This was done primarily to decrease budget costs. It was established that the Trident II would be 83 inches in diameter and 44 ft in length in order to maintain performance with the existing MX ICBM. Modifications to the guidance system, electronics hardening, and external protective coatings were incorporated into the design. While this satisfied the US Naval study requirements, it did not accommodate the US Air Force payload requirements.
Propulsion stages were proposed to be used between the first stage and second stage motors, effectively making the Trident II a longer three-stage missile than the C-4. Studies were delayed in 1978 when Congress only approved $5 million of the suggested $15 million for the Naval/Air Force program studies. By December 1978, the US Navy and Air Force studies agreed that the savings made by a similar missile structure would not be effective. It was determined that the US Navy and Air Force maintain and be responsible for their own unique weapon systems. The US Navy continued with their own weapon design of the Trident II.
In March 1980, the US Secretary of Defense proposed an increased level of funding for the submarine-launched ballistic missile modernization. Emphasis was strained for the need of increased accuracy. The House Armed Services Committee (HASC) recommended no funding, while the Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC) recommended full funding of $97 million. The SASC asked for a plan which incorporates "the fullest possible competition... (and) should consider competing among contractors for each major component, including the integrated missile." $65 million was awarded for the submarine-launched ballistic missile modernization.
On 2 October 1981, President Reagan called for the modernization of the strategic forces. The Defense Department directed the Navy to fund all development of the Trident II D5 missile with a December 1989 IOC. All research and development effort would be directed toward "a new development, advanced technology, high accuracy Trident II D5 system." In December 1982, Deputy SECDEF Frank Carlucci advised Secretary of the Navy Caspar Weinberger to include funding for a new RV/warhead combination for Trident II. The reentry vehicle was to be designated as the Mk 5, which was to have an increased yield than the Mk 4. The development contract for Trident II was issued in October 1983. On 28 December 1983, the Deputy SECDEF authorized the Navy to proceed with Full Scale Engineering Development of the Trident II D5. The first Trident II launch occurred in January 1987, and the first submarine launch was attempted by Tennessee, the first D-5 ship of the Ohio class, in March 1989. The launch attempt failed because the plume of water following the missile rose to greater height than expected, resulting in water being in the nozzle when the motor ignited. Once the problem was understood, relatively simple changes were quickly made, but the problem delayed the IOC of Trident II until March 1990.
Trident II was designed to be more advanced than Trident I (retired in 2005), and have a greater range and payload capacity. It is accurate enough to be used as a first strike weapon. The Trident II is a three-stage rocket, each stage containing a Solid-fuel rocket motor. The first motor is made by Thiokol and Hercules Inc.. This first stage incorporates a solid propellant motor, parts to ensure first-stage ignition, and a thrust vector control (TVC) system. The first-stage section, compared to the Trident C-4, is slightly larger, allowing increased range and a larger payload. In addition to a larger motor, the D-5 uses an advanced and lighter fuel binder (Polyethylene glycol) than the C-4. This fuel is more commonly known as NEPE-75.
Both the first- and second-stage motors are connected by an interstage casing, which contains electronic equipment and ordnance for separation during flight. The second stage also contains a motor made by Thiokol and Hercules Inc., parts to ensure the second-stage ignition, and a TVC system. The first and second stages are both important to the structural integrity of the missile. To ensure that the stages maintain a maximal strength-to-weight ratio, both stages are reinforced by a Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer hull.
The second- and third-stage sections are connected by an integrated equipment/adapter section (ES). The equipment/adapter section is modified to be shorter and more compact than the C-4's adapter section. The D-5's equipment section contains critical guidance and flight control avionics, such as the MK 6 navigation system. The equipment section also contains the third-stage TVC system, ordnance for ejecting from the second-stage motor, and the MIRV platform. The Nose Fairing shields the payload of the missile and third-stage motor. Mounted within the nose cap (above the nose fairing) is an extendable Drag-resistant aerospike. This aerodynamic spike effectively decreases drag by 50% on the missile. The third-stage hull is also reinforced by Carbon-fiber and Kevlar, but was not originally designed to be.
Sequence of Operation
Once the launch command is given, expanding gas within the launch tube forces the missile upward, and out of the submarine. Within seconds, the missile breaches the surface of the water and the first-stage Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC) subsystem ignites. This allows the missile to correct its position prior to first-stage motor ignition. Once the position is corrected, the first-stage motor ignites and burns for approximately 65 seconds until the fuel is expended. When the first-stage motor ceases operation, the second-stage TVC subsystem ignites. The first-stage motor is then ejected by ordnance within the interstage casing.
Once the first stage is cleared, the second-stage motor ignites and burns for approximately 65 seconds. The nose fairing is then jettisoned, separating from the missile. When the nose fairing is cleared of the missile, the third-stage TVC subsystem ignites, and ordnance separates the second-stage motor. The third-stage motor then ignites, pushing the equipment section the remaining distance (approx. 40 seconds) of the flight. When the third-stage motor reaches the targeted area, the Post Boost Control System (PBCS) ignites, and the third-stage motor is ejected.
The astro-inertial guidance uses star positioning to fine-tune the accuracy of the inertial guidance system after launch. As the accuracy of a missile is dependent upon the guidance system knowing the exact position of the missile at any given moment during its flight, the fact that stars are a fixed reference point from which to calculate that position makes this a potentially very effective means of improving accuracy. In the Trident system this was achieved by a single camera that was trained to spot just one star in its expected position, if it was not quite aligned to where it should be then this would indicate that the inertial system was not precisely on target and a correction would be made.
The equipment section, with the MIRV, then aims the reentry vehicles (RV) towards earth. The payload is then released from the MIRV platform. To prevent the PBCS correctional thrust from interfering with the RV when released, the equipment section initiates the Plume Avoidance Maneuver (PAM). If the RV will be disrupted by the PBCS nozzle's thrust, the nearest nozzle will shut off until the RV is away from the MIRV. The PAM is used only when a nozzle's plume will disrupt the area near an RV. The PAM is a specialized design feature added to the Trident II to increase accuracy.
- Purpose: Seaborne Nuclear Deterrence
- Unit Cost: US$ 37.3 million
- Range: With full load 7,840 kilometres (4,230 nmi);
with reduced load approx. 7,000 mi (11,300 km) (exact is classified)
- Maximum speed: Approximately 18,030 mph (29,020 km/h) (Mach 24)(terminal phase)
- Guidance system: Astro-inertial guidance.
- CEP: Requirement: 90–120 metres (300–390 ft). (Information from flight tests is classified.)
- Warhead (in USA usage only): The Mark 5 MIRV can carry up to 14 W88 (475 kt) warheads, while the Mark 4 MIRV can also carry 14 W76 (100 kt) warheads. START I reduced this to eight. New START provides for further reductions in deployed launch vehicles, limiting the number of Submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) to 288, and the number of deployed SLBM warheads to a total of 1,152. In 2014, another START Treaty will reduce the number of deployed SLBMs to 240.
Submarines currently armed with Trident II missiles
- Henry M. Jackson (SSBN-730)
- Alabama (SSBN-731)
- Alaska (SSBN-732)
- Nevada (SSBN-733)
- Tennessee (SSBN-734)
- Pennsylvania (SSBN-735)
- West Virginia (SSBN-736)
- Kentucky (SSBN-737)
- Maryland (SSBN-738)
- Nebraska (SSBN-739)
- Rhode Island (SSBN-740)
- Maine (SSBN-741)
- Wyoming (SSBN-742)
- Louisiana (SSBN-743)
- Trident (missile)
- RSM-56 Bulava
- R-29RMU2 Liner
- R-29RMU Sineva
- R-29 Vysota
- R-39 Rif
- M51 (missile)
- M45 (missile)
- K Missile family
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