Triglav

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For other uses, see Triglav (disambiguation).
Triglav
Triglav.jpg
Triglav viewed from the east
Elevation 2,864 m (9,396 ft)
Prominence 2,052 m (6,732 ft)
Listing Country high point
Ultra
Translation three peaks
Location
Triglav is located in Slovenia
Triglav
Triglav
Slovenia
Location Upper Carniola, Slovenia
Range Julian Alps
Coordinates 46°23′00″N 13°53′00″E / 46.38333°N 13.88333°E / 46.38333; 13.88333Coordinates: 46°23′00″N 13°53′00″E / 46.38333°N 13.88333°E / 46.38333; 13.88333
Climbing
First ascent 1778
Easiest route scramble / via ferrata

Triglav (pronounced [ˈtɾiːɡlau̯]; German: Terglau, Italian: Tricorno) is with its elevation of 2,864 metres (9,396 ft)[1][notes 1] the highest mountain in Slovenia and the highest peak of the Julian Alps. The mountain is the preeminent symbol of the Slovene nation. It is the centerpiece of Triglav National Park, Slovenia's only national park.

Name[edit]

Various names have been used for the mountain through history. An old map from 1567 named it Ocra mons, whereas Johann Weikhard von Valvasor named it Krma in the second half of the 17th century.[2] According to the German mountaineer and professor Adolf Gstirner, the name Triglav first appeared in written sources as Terglau in 1452, but the original source has been lost.[3] The next known occurrence of Terglau is cited by Gstirner and is from a court description of the border in 1573.[4] Early attestations of the name of the mountain also include Terglau in 1612 (and Terglou in 1664, and Terklou in 1778–89). The name is derived from the compound *Tri-golvъ (literally 'three-head'—that is, 'three peaks'), which may be understood literally because the mountain has three peaks when viewed from much of Upper Carniola. It is unlikely that the name has any connection to the Slavic deity Triglav.[5] In the local dialect, the name is pronounced Tərgwò (with second-syllable accent) in contrast to standard Slovene Tríglav.[6]

History[edit]

The first recorded ascent of Triglav was achieved on 26 August 1778 by Luka Korošec, Matevž Kos, Štefan Rožič and Lovrenc Willomitzer, on the initiative of the industrialist and polymath Sigmund Zois.

Triglav's height was first measured in 1808 by Valentin Stanič. The first map its name appeared on was Zemljovid Slovenske dežele in pokrajin (Map of Slovene Lands and Provinces) by Peter Kosler. He drew it in 1848 and published it in Vienna in 1861.

During World War II, Triglav symbolically captured the primary drive for the Slovene resistance to the Fascist and Nazi armies, a national liberation.[7] The Slovene Partisans wore the Triglav cap from 1942 until after 1944.[8]

Triglav was the highest peak of (now defunct) Yugoslavia; it was both the most prominent peak and, together with the southern Vardar River (now in Republic of Macedonia), the symbol of Yugoslav "brotherhood and unity".

Landmarks[edit]

Aljaž Tower[edit]

Aljaž Tower at the top of the mountain
Main article: Aljaž Tower

At the top of the mountain stands a small metal structure, the Aljaž Tower (Slovene: Aljažev stolp). It is a storm shelter and a triangulation point. Along with Triglav, it is a landmark of Slovenia and a symbol of Slovenes and the Slovene territorial sovereignty.

The tower's namesake was the priest, mountaineer and patriot Jakob Aljaž. In early 1895, he drew up with a chalk on the floor of his room in the parish of Dovje plans for a cylindrical tower with a flag on its top.[9] In April that year he purchased the summit of Triglav for the sum of one Austro-Hungarian gulden. Having done so, he secured himself the right to erect a building on his own real property.[10] The tower was constructed from iron and zinc-coated sheet steel by Anton Belec from Šentvid near Ljubljana. He and four workers brought the parts of the tower to the summit of Triglav and put the tower together in only five hours on 7 August 1895. The opening took place that same day. Aljaž donated the shelter to the Slovene Mountaineering Society.[11]

In the beginning, there were three four-legged chairs, a summit register, a spirit stove, and the image Triglav Panorama by Marko Pernhart in the tower.[12] It was later repainted and renovated several times by Alojz Knafelc and others. In the Communist era, as the highest point of the former Yugoslavia, it was painted red and decorated with a red star.[13] However, it has more or less retained its original appearance.[14] The star was removed shortly before the dissolution of Yugoslavia.[13] On the proclamation of Slovene independence in June 1991, the flag of Slovenia was solemnly raised at the tower.[14]

Stanič Shelter[edit]

in 1895, due to lack of space, Aljaž also commissioned the building of Stanič Shelter. It is located 55 metres (180 ft) under the top of Triglav and is named after the poet and mountaineer Valentin Stanič. The shelter that has the dimensions of 2.4×2.2×2 m (7 ft 10 in×7 ft 3 in×6 ft 7 in) has room for 8 sitting or 16 standing people. Originally it also had a wooden door, banks, a table and a chair. Its significance diminished after the Kredarica Hut was erected in 1896.

Triglav Glacier[edit]

Remains of the Triglav Glacier in 2002

The Triglav Glacier (Triglavski ledenik) is located below the summit on the karstified Triglav Plateaux (Triglavski podi), part of the northeastern side of the mountain.[15] Covering over 40 hectares (99 acres) at the end of the 19th century, the glacier shrunk to 15 hectares (37 acres) until 1946,[16] and after further shrinkage fell into two parts in 1992.[17] It now covers an area of 1–3 hectares only, depending on the season.[17]

Cultural significance[edit]

Folk literature[edit]

The Triglav area is the setting of an old Slovene folktale concerning a hunter seeking a treasure guarded by an enchanted chamois buck named Zlatorog (Goldhorn, after its golden horns).

Arts[edit]

Romantic veduta of Triglav by the Carinthian Slovene painter Marko Pernhart

The earliest known depiction of Triglav is on the front page of the work Oryctographia Carniolica, written by Belsazar Hacquet.[18] It was a copper engraving made in 1778 by C. Conti after a drawing by Franz Xaver Baraga.[19] Among later visual artists who depicted Triglav, the most known are Anton Karinger (1829–1870) from Ljubljana, Marko Pernhart (1824–1871) from Klagenfurt, Valentin Hodnik (1896–1935) from Stara Fužina, Edo Deržaj (1904–1980) from Ljubljana, and recently Marjan Zaletel (born 1945), living in Ljubljana.[20][21]

Among the musical works related to Triglav, a special place is held by the poem Oh, Triglav, My Home (Oj, Triglav, moj dom). It was written in 1894 by the priest and poet Matija Zemljič and quickly became very popular among Slovene mountaineers. In 2007, its first stanza, accompanied by a melody of Jakob Aljaž, became the official anthem of the Mountaineering Association of Slovenia. An instrumental version of the poem, written by Bojan Adamič, is each year part of the start and end credits of ski jumping broadcasts from Planica.

The first Slovene-language full-length film, recorded in 1931 by Janko Ravnik, was titled In the Kingdom of the Goldhorn (V kraljestvu Zlatoroga) and features ascent by a group of students to the top of Triglav. The second Slovene full-length film, recorded in the following year, was titled The Slopes of Mount Triglav (Triglavske strmine). It was directed by Ferdo Delak and was a romantic story featuring a signature of a wedding contract on the top of Triglav.

Since 1968, Triglav has become a theme of avant-garde artists. The first instance was a manifestation by the art group OHO, called Mount Triglav, which took place in December 1968 at Ljubljana's Congress Square. In 2004, the group IRWIN produced a series of paintings named Like to Like/ Mount Triglav. In 2007, an artistic performance was held atop Mount Triglav by the artists Janez Janša (director), Janez Janša (visual artist) and Janez Janša (performance artist) as Mount Triglav on Mount Triglav.[22]

National symbol[edit]

Coat of arms of Slovenia, with a stylized depiction of Triglav
A Slovene Partisan triglavka

A stylized depiction of Triglav's distinctive shape is the central element of the Slovene coat of arms, and is in turn featured on the flag of Slovenia.[23] Formerly, it was featured on the coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia. A Slovene flag was unfurled from the summit of Triglav on 26 June 1991, the night of the declaration of independence of Slovenia from Yugoslavia.

The distinctive three-pronged caps worn by Slovene Partisans during World War II were known as triglavkas. A photorealistic relief of the mountain is the design on the national side of the Slovene 50 eurocent coin.

The former Slovene president Milan Kučan proclaimed that it is a duty of every Slovene to climb Triglav at least once in their lifetime

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to the measurement performed in 1985 from the Trenta Valley by the Geodetic Institute of Slovenia, it has an elevation of 2,864.09 ± 0.032 metres (9,396.62 ± 0.10 ft).[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Banovec, Tomaž (March 1986). "Triglav, 2864 metrov" [Triglav, 2864 meters]. Planinski vestnik (in Slovene). LXXXVI (3): 106.  Unknown parameter |DUPLICATE_page= ignored (help)
  2. ^ Orožen, Fran (December 1903). "Kaj pripoveduje Valvasor o Krmi (Triglavu)" [What Does Valvasor Say about Krma (Triglav)]. Planinski vestnik (in Slovene) IX (12): 201–202. ISSN 0350-4344. 
  3. ^ Zorzut, Ludovik (July 1961). "Odkrite zanimivosti" [Interesting Facts Discovered]. Planinski vestnik (in Slovene) XVII. p. 330. ISSN 0350-4344. 
  4. ^ Golec, Boris (2001). "Iz zgodovine pisarniške slovenščine v 1. polovici 18. stoletja" [From the History of Administrative Slovene in the First Half of the 18th Century]. Arhivi (in Slovene) XXIV (1): 100. 
  5. ^ Snoj, Marko. 2009. Etimološki slovar slovenskih zemljepisnih imen. Ljubljana: Modrijan and Založba ZRC, p. 439.
  6. ^ Bezlaj, France. 2005. Etimološki slovar slovenskega jezika, vol. 4. Ljubljana: Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti, p. 224.
  7. ^ Snel, Guido (2004). "Dreaming of Friends, Living with Foes". Alter Ego: Twenty Confronting Views on the European Experience. Amsterdam University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-90-5356-688-6.  Unknown parameter |DUPLICATE_first= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |DUPLICATE_last= ignored (help)
  8. ^ Luštek, Miroslav. "Nekaj zunanjih znakov partizanstva" [Some External Signs of the Partisan Movement]. In Bevc, Milan. Et al. Letopis muzeja narodne osvoboditve 1958 [The Yearbook of the Museum of the National Liberation 1958] (in Slovene, with a summary in French) II. Museum of the National Liberation of the People's Republic of Slovenia. COBISS 172143. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  9. ^ "Ali ste vedeli ..." [Did You Know...]. Slovene Mountaineering Museum. Retrieved 27 May 2014. 
  10. ^ Mikša, Peter. "Narodnostni boji v planinstvu na Slovenskem do 1. svetovne vojne" [National Battles in Mountaineering in the Slovene Lands Until World War I] (in Slovene). pp. 65–68. ISSN 1318-2498. 
  11. ^ "Aljažev stolp vrh Triglava" (in Slovene). Mountaneering club Ljubljana-Matica. Archived from the original on 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 
  12. ^ Cvirn, Janez (2000). Vidic, Marko, ed. Ilustrirana zgodovina Slovencev. Mladinska knjiga. p. 271. ISBN 86-11-15664-1. 
  13. ^ a b Bartolj, Jaka (17 December 2013). "Jakob Aljaž built a tower that has become a Slovenian symbol". MMC RTV Slovenija. RTV Slovenija. 
  14. ^ a b Belimezov, Maja (2007-07-25). "Stolp ima 110 let" (in Slovene). Gore-ljudje.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  15. ^ Pavšek, Miha. "Triglavski ledenik" [The Triglav Glacier]. In Šmid Hribar, Mateja. Torkar, Gregor. Golež, Mateja. Podjed, Dan. Drago Kladnik, Drago. Erhartič, Bojan. Pavlin, Primož. Jerele, Ines. Enciklopedija naravne in kulturne dediščine na Slovenskem – DEDI (in Slovene). Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  16. ^ Pavšek, Miha; Triglav Čekada, Matej (2008). "Regular Measurements on the Triglav Glacier 1946–2008: A Poster". Geographical Institute of Anton Melik, Scientific Research Centre of the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts.  Unknown parameter |DUPLICATE_last2= ignored (help); |first3= missing |last3= in Authors list (help)
  17. ^ a b Gabrovec, Matej; Pavšek, Matej (2 November 2011). "Spreminjanje obsega ledenika" [Changes of the Extent of the Glacier] (in Slovene). Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of Agriculture and Environment. 
  18. ^ Jerele, Ines. "Geologija alpskega sveta Slovenije" [Geology of Alpine Landscapes of Slovenia]. In Šmid Hribar, Mateja. Torkar, Gregor. Golež, Mateja. Podjed, Dan. Drago Kladnik, Drago. Erhartič, Bojan. Pavlin, Primož. Jerele, Ines. Enciklopedija naravne in kulturne dediščine na Slovenskem – DEDI (in Slovene). Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  19. ^ Savenc, Franci (2 April 2009). "Zgodovina slovenskega planinstva". Gore-ljudje. 
  20. ^ Zupan, France (June 2006). "Bog Pan pride na Bivak za Akom" [Pan the God Comes to the Shelter Behind Ak]. Planinski vestnik (in Slovene) (Mountaineering Association of Slovenia) 111 (6): 6–13. ISSN 0350-4344. 
  21. ^ Bradeško, Marjan (June 2006). "Goram dajejo novo razsežnost" [They Give Mountains a New Dimension]. Planinski vestnik (in Slovene) (Mountaineering Association of Slovenia) 111 (6): 14–21. ISSN 0350-4344. 
  22. ^ Šuvaković, Miško (2007). "3x Triglav: kontroverznosti in problemi okrog Triglava" [3x Triglav: Controversies and Problems Regarding Mount Triglav]. Axioma. 
  23. ^ "Zakon o grbu, zastavi in himni Republike Slovenije ter o slovenski narodni zastavi" [The Law on the Coat of Arms, the Flag and the Anthem of the Republic of Slovenia and on the Slovene National Flag]. Uradni list [Official Gazette] (in Slovene). 21 October 1994. 

External links[edit]