|Trillium erectum (red trillium)|
See "Species of Trillium" below.
Seed dispersal 
Trillium is one of many plants whose seeds are spread by ants. At maturity, the base and core of the trillium ovary turns soft and spongy. Trillium seeds have a fleshy organ called an elaiosome that attracts ants. The ants extract the seeds from the decaying ovary and take them to their nest, where they eat the elaiosomes and put the seeds in their garbage, where they germinate in a rich growing medium.
Ecological status 
Picking a trillium seriously injures the plant by preventing the leaf-like bracts from producing food for the next year. A plant takes many years to recover. It is a popular belief in many jurisdictions that picking trilliums is illegal. Some species of trillium are listed as threatened or endangered; picking these species may be illegal. Laws in some jurisdictions may restrict the commercial exploitation of trilliums and prohibit collection without the land owners permission. In Michigan, Minnesota and New York it is illegal to pick and/or transplant trilliums from public lands without a permit from the State. However, in these three states, trillium species which are not threatened or endangered may be picked on privately owned land with the land owners consent.
While it is a popular belief that it is illegal to pick the common Trillium grandiflorum (white trillium) in Ontario, in reality they are only protected in provincial parks and land owned by conservation authorities. However, the rare Trillium flexipes (drooping trillium) is protected by law in Ontario, because of its very small Canadian population.
Medicinal uses 
In a 1918 publication, Joseph E. Meyer called it "Beth Root" (probably a corruption of "birthroot") and claimed that an astringent tonic derived from the root was useful in controlling bleeding and diarrhea.
A white trillium serves as the emblem and official flower of the Canadian province of Ontario. It is an official symbol of the Government of Ontario. The large white trillium is the official wildflower of Ohio.
Nodding trillium (Trillium cernuum)
Purple trillium (Trillium erectum)
Great white trillium (Trillium grandiflorum)
Western wake-robin (Trillium ovatum)
Prairie trillium (Trillium recurvatum)
Painted trillium (Trillium undulatum)
See also 
- Trillium grandiflorum (large-flowered trillium) in eastern North America
- Trillium ovatum (western trillium).
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2013)|
- Trillium undulatum Wildenow, http://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/abstracts/botany/trillium_undulatum.pdf, Michigan State University Extension, 2004
- 18H.18 — Conservation of certain wildflowers. - Minnesota 18H.18 — Conservation of certain wildflowers. - Minnesota Code :: Justia
- New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
- Illegal to pick a trillium? Not quite - thestar.com
- Meyer, Joseph E. The Herbalist and Herb Doctor. Hammond, IN: Indiana Herb Gardens, 1918, p. 50.
- Adoption of the Ohio State Wildflower
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Trillium|
- Interactive Identification Key (Java)
- Utah Agricultural Experiment Station — Fact Sheets
- Ontario Woodlot Association
- Trillium at the Encyclopedia of Life
- Page of links by Susan Farmer