Trimeresurus gramineus

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Trimeresurus gramineus
Cryptelytrops albolabris.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Subfamily: Crotalinae
Genus: Trimeresurus
Species: T. gramineus
Binomial name
Trimeresurus gramineus
(Shaw, 1802)
Trimeresurus gramineus distribution.png
Synonyms
  • Coluber Gramineus Shaw, 1802
  • Coluber viridis Bechstein, 1802
  • Vipera viridis Daudin, 1803
  • Trimeresurus viridis
    Lacépède, 1804
  • [Cophias] viridis Merrem, 1820
  • Trigonoceph[alus]. viridis
    Schinz, 1822
  • Bothrops viridis Wagler, 1830
  • Trigonoc[ephalus]. viridis
    Schlegel, 1837
  • Trimesurus viridis Gray, 1842
  • [Bothrophis] viridis Fitzinger, 1843
  • Trigonocephalus gramineus
    Cantor, 1847
  • Trigonocephalus (Cophias) viridis
    Jerdon, 1854
  • B[othrops]. viridis var. fario
    Jan, 1863
  • B[othrops]. viridis var. Genei
    Jan, 1863
  • Trimeresurus gramineus
    Günther, 1864
  • Crotalus Trimeresurus gramineus
    – Higgins, 1873
  • Lachesis gramineus
    Boulenger, 1896
  • Trimeresurus gramineus gramineus Stejneger, 1927
  • Trimeresurus occidentalis
    Pope & Pope, 1933
  • Trimeresurus gramineus
    – Taub, 1964
  • Trimeresurus gramineus
    – Golay et al., 1993[1]
  • Trimeresurus (Craspedocephalus) gramineus – David et al., 2011[2]
Common names: bamboo viper,[3][4] Indian tree viper,[5] more.

Trimeresurus gramineus is a venomous pit viper species found only in southern India. No subspecies are currently recognized.[6] It is the type species for the genus Trimeresurus.[1]

Description[edit]

T. gramineus, Katraj Snake Park, Pune.

Rostral scale as deep as broad or broader than deep; upper head-scales small, smooth, imbricate; supraocular scale narrow, rarely broken up; internasals in contact or separated by one or two scales; 8 to 13 scales on a line between the supraoculars; usually one or two, rarely three, series of scales between the suboculars and the labials; 9 to 12 upper labials, second usually forming the anterior border of the loreal pit, third largest; temporal scales smooth.

Dorsal scales more or less distinctly keeled, in 21 (rarely 19 or 23) rows. Ventrals 145-175; anal scale entire; subcaudals in two rows 53-76.

Upper parts usually bright green, rarely yellowish, greyish, or purplish brown, with or without black, brown, or reddish spots; usually a light, white, yellow, or red streak along the outer row of scales; end of tail frequently yellow or red; lower parts green, yellow, or whitish.[7]

Grows to a total length of 2.5 feet (0.76 m); tail 5.5 inches (14 cm).[7]

Bamboo Pit Viper, Raajmachi, Lonavala.

Common names[edit]

Bamboo pit viper,[3][4] Indian tree viper,[5] bamboo snake, Indian green tree viper, green tree viper,[8] bamboo viper,[9] bamboo pitviper,[10] boodro pam, grass-green snake,[11] green pit viper.[12]

Geographic range[edit]

The range of this species has been restricted to southern India. It is also rarely seen near Harishchandragad and some other mountain ranges of Western Ghats aka Sahyadris in Maharashtra.

The type locality is "Vizagapatam, India", which is based on Russell (1796).[1]

Habitat[edit]

It is found in bamboo groves and forests, usually near streams.[12]

Behavior[edit]

T. gramineus is arboreal and nocturnal. When threatened, it is aggressive and does not hesitate to bite.[12]

Diet[edit]

It feeds on lizards and birds.[12]

Reproduction[edit]

T. gramineus is oviparous. Adult females lay eggs in clutches of 6 to 20. The hatchlings resemble the adults, with the addition of dark dorsal crossbars, and are about 12 centimetres (4.7 in) in total length.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
  3. ^ a b Khaire, N. 2006. A Guide to the Snakes of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. Indian Herpetological Society. Pune, India. (Photographic guide with 61 species.)
  4. ^ a b Smith MA. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-region. Reptilia and Amphibia, Vol. III. – Serpentes. Secretary of State for India. (Taylor & Francis, Printers). London. xii + 583 pp., 166 figures. (Trimeresurus gramineus, pp. 515-517, Fig. 164.)
  5. ^ a b Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
  6. ^ "Trimeresurus gramineus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 27 September 2006. 
  7. ^ a b Boulenger GA. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Secretary of State for India in Council. (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xviii + 541 pp. (Trimeresurus, p. 425 & Trimeresurus gramineus, pp. 429-430.)
  8. ^ U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. US Govt. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
  9. ^ Parker HW, Grandison AGC. 1977. Snakes -- a natural history. Second Edition. British Museum (Natural History) and Cornell University Press. 108 pp. 16 plates. LCCCN 76-54625. ISBN 0-8014-1095-9 (cloth), ISBN 0-8014-9164-9 (paper).
  10. ^ Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S. 2004. Asian Pitvipers. GeitjeBooks Berlin. 1st Edition. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.
  11. ^ Shaw. 1802. p. 420.
  12. ^ a b c d e Das, Indraneil. 2002. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of India. Ralph Curtis Books. Sanibel Island, Florida. 144 pp. ISBN 0-88359-056-5. (Trimeresurus gramineus, p. 65.)

Further reading[edit]

  • Cantor, T.E. 1839. Spicilegium serpentium indicorum [parts 1 and 2]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 7: 31-34, 49-55.
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian Pit Vipers. Geitje Books. Berlin. 368 pp.
  • Russell, P. 1796. An Account of Indian Serpents, Collected on the Coast of Coromandel; Containing Descriptions and Drawings of Each Species, Together with Experiments and Remarks on Their Several Poisons. George Nicol. London. viii + 91 pp. + Plates I.- XLVI.
  • Shaw, G. 1802. General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History: Vol. III., Part II. G. Kearsley. (Thomas Davison, Printer). London. iv + pp. 313–615 + Plates 87-140. ("Coluber Gramineus", pp. 420–421.).
  • Stejneger, L. 1927. The green pit viper, Trimeresurus gramineus, in China. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 72 (19): 1-10.

External links[edit]