Trimix (breathing gas)

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Trimix is a breathing gas, consisting of oxygen, helium and nitrogen, and is often used in deep commercial diving and during the deep phase of dives carried out using technical diving techniques.[1][2]

With a mixture of three gases it is possible to create mixes suitable for different depths or purposes by adjusting the proportions of each gas.

The mixture of helium and oxygen with a 0% nitrogen content is generally known as Heliox. This is frequently used as a breathing gas in deep commercial diving operations, where it is often recycled to save the expensive helium component. Analysis of two-component gases is much simpler than three component gases.

Mixes[edit]

Advantages of helium in the mix[edit]

The main reason for adding helium to the breathing mix is to reduce the proportions of nitrogen and oxygen below those of air, to allow the gas mix to be breathed safely on deep dives.[1] A lower proportion of nitrogen is required to reduce nitrogen narcosis and other physiological effects of the gas at depth. Helium has very little narcotic effect.[3] A lower proportion of oxygen reduces the risk of oxygen toxicity on deep dives.

The lower density of helium reduces breathing resistance at depth.[1][3]

Because of its low molecular weight, helium enters and leaves tissues more rapidly than nitrogen as the pressure is increased or reduced (this is called on-gassing and off-gassing). Because of its lower solubility, helium does not load tissues as heavily as nitrogen, but at the same time the tissues can not support as high an amount of helium when super-saturated. In effect, helium is a faster gas to saturate and desaturate, which is a distinct advantage in saturation diving, but less so in bounce diving, where the increased rate of off-gassing is largely counterbalanced by the equivalently increased rate of on-gassing.

Disadvantages of helium in the mix[edit]

Helium conducts heat six times faster than air; often helium breathing divers carry a separate supply of a different gas to inflate drysuits. This is to avoid the risk of hypothermia caused by using helium as inflator gas. Argon, carried in a small, separate tank, connected only to the inflator of the drysuit is preferred to air, since air conducts heat 50% faster than argon.[4] Dry suits (if used together with a buoyancy compensator) still require a minimum of inflation to avoid "squeezing", i.e. damage to skin caused by pressurizing dry suit folds.

Some divers suffer from hyperbaric arthralgia (compression arthralgia) during descent.[5]

Helium dissolves into tissues more rapidly than nitrogen as the ambient pressure is increased (this is called on-gassing). A consequence of the higher loading in some tissues is that many decompression algorithms require deeper decompression stops than a similar decompression dive using air, and helium is more likely to come out of solution and cause decompression sickness following a fast ascent.[citation needed]

In addition to physiological disadvantages, the use of trimix also has economic and logistic disadvantages. The price of helium has increased by over 51% between the years 2000 and 2011.[6] This price increase affects open-circuit divers more than closed-circuit divers due to the larger volume of helium consumed on a typical trimix dive. Additionally, as trimix fills require a more elaborate blending and compressor setup than less complex air and nitrox fills, there are fewer trimix filling stations.[citation needed] The relative scarcity of trimix filling stations may necessitate going far out of one's way in order to procure the necessary mix for a deep dive that requires the gas.

Advantages of reducing oxygen in the mix[edit]

Lowering the oxygen content increases the maximum operating depth and duration of the dive before which oxygen toxicity becomes a limiting factor. Most trimix divers limit their working oxygen partial pressure [PO2] to 1.4 bar and may reduce the PO2 further to 1.3 bar or 1.2 bar depending on the depth, the duration and the kind of breathing system used.[1][2][7][8] A maximum oxygen partial pressure of 1.4 bar for the active sectors of the dive, and 1.6 bar for decompression stops is recommended by several recreational and technical diving certification agencies for open circuit,[9] and 1.2 bar or 1.3 bar as maximum for the active sectors of a dive on closed circuit rebreather.

Advantages of keeping some nitrogen in the mix[edit]

Retaining nitrogen in trimix can contribute to the prevention of High Pressure Nervous Syndrome, a problem that can occur when breathing heliox at depths beyond about 130 metres (430 ft).[1][10][11][12] Nitrogen is also much less expensive than helium.

Naming conventions[edit]

Conventionally, the mix is named by its oxygen percentage, helium percentage and optionally the balance percentage, nitrogen. For example, a mix named "trimix 10/70" or trimix 10/70/20, consisting of 10% oxygen, 70% helium, 20% nitrogen is suitable for a 100-metre (330 ft) dive.

The ratio of gases in a particular mix is chosen to give a safe maximum operating depth and comfortable equivalent narcotic depth for the planned dive. Safe limits for mix of gases in trimix are generally accepted to be a maximum partial pressure of oxygen (PO2—see Dalton's law) of 1.0 to 1.6 bar and maximum equivalent narcotic depth of 30 to 50 m (100 to 160 ft). At 100 m (330 ft), "12/52" has a PO2 of 1.3 bar and an equivalent narcotic depth of 43 m (141 ft).

In open-circuit scuba, two classes of trimix are commonly used: normoxic trimix—with a minimum PO2 at the surface of 0.18 and hypoxic trimix—with a PO2 less than 0.18 at the surface.[13] A normoxic mix such as "19/30" is used in the 30 to 60 m (100 to 200 ft) depth range; a hypoxic mix such as "10/50" is used for deeper diving, as a bottom gas only, and cannot safely be breathed at shallow depths where the PO2 is less than 0.18 bar.

In fully closed circuit rebreathers that use trimix diluents, the mix can be hyperoxic in shallow water because the rebreather automatically adds oxygen to maintain a specific PO2.[14] Less commonly, hyperoxic trimix is sometimes used on open circuit scuba. Hyperoxic trimix is sometimes referred to as Helitrox, TriOx, or HOTx (High Oxygen Trimix) with the "x" in HOTx representing the mixture's fraction of helium as a percentage.[15]

See breathing gas for more information on the composition and choice of gas blends.

Blending[edit]

Gas blending of trimix involves decanting oxygen and helium into the diving cylinder and then topping up the mix with air from a diving air compressor. To ensure an accurate mix, after each helium and oxygen transfer, the mix is allowed to cool, its pressure is measured and further gas is decanted until the correct pressure is achieved. This process often takes hours and is sometimes spread over days at busy blending stations.[16]

A second method called 'continuous blending' is now gaining favor.[16] Oxygen, helium and air are blended on the intake side of a compressor. The oxygen and helium are fed into the air stream using flow meters, so as to achieve the rough mix. The low pressure mixture is analyzed for oxygen content and the oxygen and helium flows adjusted accordingly. On the high pressure side of the compressor a regulator is used to reduce pressure of a sample flow and the trimix is analyzed (preferably for both helium and oxygen) so that the fine adjustment to the intake gas flows can be made.

The benefit of such a system is that the helium delivery tank pressure need not be as high as that used in the partial pressure method of blending and residual gas can be 'topped up' to best mix after the dive. This is important mainly because of the high cost of helium.

Drawbacks may be that the high heat of compression of helium results in the compressor overheating (especially in tropical climates) and that the hot trimix entering the analyzer on the high pressure side can affect the reliability of the analysis.[citation needed]. DIY versions of the continuous blend units can be made for as little as $200 (excluding analyzers).[16][17]

"Standard" mixes[edit]

Although theoretically trimix can be blended with almost any combination of helium and oxygen, a number of "standard" mixes have evolved (such as 21/35, 18/45 and 15/55—see Naming conventions). Most of these mixes originated from filling the cylinders with a certain percentage of helium, and then topping the mix with 32% enriched air nitrox. The "standard" mixes evolved because of three coinciding factors—the desire to keep that equivalent narcotic depth (END) of the mix at approximately 34 metres (112 ft), the requirement to keep the partial pressure of oxygen at 1.4 ATA or below at the deepest point of the dive, and the fact that many dive shops stored standard 32% enriched air nitrox in banks, which simplified mixing.[18] The use of standard mixes makes it relatively easy to top up diving cylinders after a dive using residual mix—only helium and banked nitrox needs to be used to top up the residual gas from the last fill.

The method of mixing a known nitrox mix with helium allows analysis of the fractions of each gas using only an oxygen analyser, since the ratio of the oxygen fraction in the final mix to the oxygen fraction in the initial nitrox gives the fraction of nitrox in the final mix, hence the fractions of the three components are easily calculated. It is demonstrably true that the END of a nitrox-helium mixture at its maximum operating depth (MOD) is equal to the MOD of the nitrox alone.

Heliair[edit]

Heliair is a breathing gas consisting of mixture of oxygen, nitrogen and helium and is often used during the deep phase of dives carried out using technical diving techniques. This term, first used by Sheck Exley,[19] is mostly used by Technical Diving International.

It is easily blended from helium and air and so has a fixed 21:79 ratio of oxygen to nitrogen with the balance consisting of a variable amount of helium. It is sometimes referred to as "poor man's trimix",[19][20] because it is much easier to blend than trimix blends with variable oxygen content, since all that is required is to insert the requisite partial pressure of helium, and then top up with air from a conventional compressor. The more complicated (and dangerous) step of adding pure oxygen at pressure required to blend trimix is absent when blending heliair.

Heliair blends are similar to the standard Trimix blends made with helium and Nitrox 32, but with a deeper END at MOD. Heliair will always have less than 21% oxygen, and will be hypoxic (less than 17% oxygen) for mixes with more than 20% helium.

Hyperoxic trimix[edit]

The National Association of Underwater Instructors (NAUI) uses the term "helitrox" for hyperoxic 26/17 Trimix, i.e. 26% oxygen, 17% helium, 57% nitrogen. Helitrox requires decompression stops similar to Nitrox-I (EAN32) and has a maximum operating depth of 44 metres (144 ft), where it has an equivalent narcotic depth of 35 metres (115 ft). This allows diving throughout the usual recreational range, while decreasing decompression obligation and narcotic effects compared to air.[21]

GUE and UTD also promote hyperoxic trimix, but prefer the term "TriOx".

Other divers question whether this proliferation of terminology is useful, and feel that the term Trimix is sufficient, modified as appropriate with the terms hypoxic, normoxic and hyperoxic, and the usual forms for indicating constituent gas fraction.

History as a diving gas[edit]

1919
Professor Elihu Thompson speculates that helium could be used instead of nitrogen to reduce the breathing resistance at great depth.[22] The effects from narcosis was not proven until the salvage of the USS Squalus in 1939.[22] Heliox was used with air tables resulting in a high incidence of decompression sickness so the use of helium was discontinued.[23]
1925
The US Navy begins examining helium's potential usage and by the mid-1920s lab animals were exposed to experimental chamber dives using heliox. Soon, human subjects breathing heliox 20/80 (20% oxygen, 80% helium) had been successfully decompressed from deep dives.[citation needed]
1937
Several test dives are conducted with helium mixtures, including salvage diver Max "Gene" Nohl's dive to 127 meters.[24][25]
1939
US Navy used heliox in USS Squalus salvage operation.[22]
1965
First saturation dives using heliox.[citation needed]
1970
Hal Watts performs dual body recovery at Mystery Sink (126 m). Cave divers Sheck Exley and Jochen Hasenmayer use heliox to a depth of 212 meters.[citation needed]
1979
A research team headed by Peter B. Bennett at the Duke University Medical Center Hyperbaric Laboratory began the "Atlantis Dive Series" which proved the mechanisms behind the use of trimix to prevent High Pressure Nervous Syndrome symptoms.[25]
1987
First mass use of trimix and heliox: Wakulla Springs Project. Exley teaches non-commercial divers in relation to trimix usage in cave diving.[citation needed]
1991
Billy Deans commences teaching of trimix diving for recreational diving. Tom Mount develops first trimix training standards (IANTD). Use of trimix spreads rapidly to North East American wreck diving community.[citation needed]
1994
Combined UK/USA team, including leading wreck divers John Chatterton and Gary Gentile, successfully complete a series of wreck dives on the RMS Lusitania expedition to a depth of 100 meters using trimix.[citation needed]
1995
The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Key West Divers team up to conduct the first NOAA-sponsored trimix dives on the wreck of USS Monitor off Cape Hatteras, NC. NOAA's mix, initially called "Monitor Mix" became NOAA Trimix I, with decompression tables published in the NOAA Diving Manual.[citation needed]
2001
The Guinness Book of records recognises John Bennett as the first scuba diver to dive to 1000 ft, using Trimix.[citation needed]
2005
David Shaw sets depth record for using a trimix rebreather, dying while repeating the dive.[26][27]

Source: "Trimix and heliox diving". February 14, 2002. Retrieved 2008-10-07. [unreliable source?]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Brubakk, A. O.; T. S. Neuman (2003). Bennett and Elliott's physiology and medicine of diving, 5th Rev ed. United States: Saunders Ltd. p. 800. ISBN 0-7020-2571-2. 
  2. ^ a b Gernhardt, ML (2006). "Biomedical and Operational Considerations for Surface-Supplied Mixed-Gas Diving to 300 FSW.". In: Lang, MA and Smith, NE (eds). Proceedings of Advanced Scientific Diving Workshop (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution). Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
  3. ^ a b "Diving Physics and "Fizzyology"". Bishop Museum. 1997. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  4. ^ "Thermal conductivity of some common materials". The Engineering ToolBox. 2005. Retrieved March 9, 2010. Argon:0.016; Air:0.024; Helium:0.142 W/mK 
  5. ^ Vann RD and Vorosmarti J (2002). "Military Diving Operations and Support". Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments, Volume 2 (Borden Institute): p980. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  6. ^ "Helium statistics". U.S. Geological Survey. 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2013. He price in 2000 @ Unit Value 10500 and He price in 2011 @ Unit Value 15900 per ton 
  7. ^ Acott, C. (1999). "Oxygen toxicity: A brief history of oxygen in diving". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society Journal 29 (3). ISSN 0813-1988. OCLC 16986801. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  8. ^ Gerth, WA (2006). "Decompression Sickness and Oxygen Toxicity in US Navy Surface-Supplied He-O2 Diving.". In: Lang, MA and Smith, NE (eds). Proceedings of Advanced Scientific Diving Workshop (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution). Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
  9. ^ Lang, Michael A, ed. (2001). "DAN Nitrox Workshop Proceedings, November 3–4, 2000". Divers Alert Network. p. 190. Retrieved 4 March 2012. 
  10. ^ Hunger Jr, W. L.; P. B. Bennett. (1974). "The causes, mechanisms and prevention of the high pressure nervous syndrome". Undersea Biomed. Res. 1 (1): 1–28. ISSN 0093-5387. OCLC 2068005. PMID 4619860. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  11. ^ Bennett, P. B.; R. Coggin; M. McLeod. (1982). "Effect of compression rate on use of trimix to ameliorate HPNS in man to 686 m (2250 ft)". Undersea Biomed. Res. 9 (4): 335–51. ISSN 0093-5387. OCLC 2068005. PMID 7168098. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  12. ^ Campbell, E. "High Pressure Nervous Syndrome". Diving Medicine Online. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  13. ^ Tech Diver. "Exotic Gases". Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  14. ^ Richardson, D; Menduno, M; Shreeves, K. (eds). (1996). "Proceedings of Rebreather Forum 2.0.". Diving Science and Technology Workshop.: 286. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  15. ^ Extended Range Diving & Trimix. Technical Diving International. p. 65. In addition, to reduce the on-gassing of the diluents (helium and nitrogen) a similar technique to Nitrox has developed, termed 'hyperoxic trimix or 'high oxygen trimix and abbreviated HOTx in at least one form. 
  16. ^ a b c Harlow, V (2002). Oxygen Hacker's Companion. Airspeed Press. ISBN 0-9678873-2-1. 
  17. ^ "Continuous trimix blending with 2 nitrox sticks (English)". The shadowdweller. 2006. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  18. ^ TDI Advanced Gas Blender manual
  19. ^ a b Bowen, Curt (1997). "Heliair: Poor man's mix". DeepTech (pdf). Retrieved 13 January 2010. 
  20. ^ Gentile, Gary (1998). Technical Diving Handbook. Philadelphia, PA: G. Gentile Productions. ISBN 978-1-883056-05-6. Retrieved 13 January 2010. 
  21. ^ "NAUI Technical Courses: Helitrox Diver". NAUI Worldwide. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  22. ^ a b c Acott, Chistopher (1999). "A brief history of diving and decompression illness.". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society Journal 29 (2). ISSN 0813-1988. OCLC 16986801. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  23. ^ Behnke, Albert R. (1969). "Some early studies of decompression.". In: the Physiology and Medicine of Diving and Compressed air work. Bennett PB and Elliott DH. Eds. (Balliere Tindall Cassell): 226–251. 
  24. ^ staff (1937-12-13). "Science: Deepest Dive". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  25. ^ a b Camporesi, Enrico M (2007). "The Atlantis Series and Other Deep Dives.". In: Moon RE, Piantadosi CA, Camporesi EM (eds.). Dr. Peter Bennett Symposium Proceedings. Held May 1, 2004. Durham, N.C.: (Divers Alert Network). Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  26. ^ Mitchell SJ, Cronjé FJ, Meintjes WA, Britz HC (February 2007). "Fatal respiratory failure during a "technical" rebreather dive at extreme pressure". Aviat Space Environ Med 78 (2): 81–6. PMID 17310877. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  27. ^ David Shaw. "The Last Dive of David Shaw". Retrieved 2009-11-29.