Trinidad and Tobago Carnival
Members of a Costume band parade on the streets of Port of Spain
|Observed by||Trinidad and Tobago|
|Type||Cultural, Roman Catholic|
|Significance||Week before Lent|
|Celebrations||processions, music, dancing, and the use of masquerade|
|Date||Monday and Tuesday before Lent|
|2014 date||March 3 & 4|
|2015 date||February 16 & 17|
|Related to||Caribbean Carnival, Mardi Gras, Carnival, Shrove Monday, Ash Wednesday, Lent, Maslenitsa|
The Trinidad and Tobago Carnival is an annual event held on the Monday and Tuesday before Ash Wednesday in Trinidad and Tobago. The event is well known for participants' colourful costumes and exuberant celebrations.
Carnival is the most significant event on the islands' cultural and tourism calendar, with numerous cultural events such as "band launch fetes" running in the lead up to the street parade on Carnival Monday and Tuesday. It is said that if the islanders are not celebrating it, then they are preparing for it, while reminiscing about the past year's festival. Traditionally, the festival is associated with calypso music; however, recently Soca music has replaced calypso as the most celebrated type of music. Costumes, stick-fighting and limbo competitions are also important components of the festival.
Carnival as it is celebrated in Trinidad and Tobago is also celebrated in cities worldwide.These including Toronto's Caribana, Miami's Miami Carnival, Houston Carifest, London's Notting Hill Carnival as well as New York City's Labor Day Carnival to name a few.
The Cedula of Population of 1783 laid the foundation and growth of the population of Trinidad. The Spanish who were in possession of the island, contributed little towards advancements, with El Dorado the focus, Trinidad was perfect due to its geographical location. French planters with their slaves, free coloureds and mulattos from neighbouring islands of Martinique, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, Guadeloupe, and Dominica migrated to the Trinidad during the French Revolution. The Spanish also gave many incentives to lure settlers to the island, including exemption from taxes for ten years and land grants in accordance to the terms set out in the Cedula. These new immigrants establishing local communities of Blanchisseuse, Champs Fleurs, Cascade, Carenage and Laventille. Trinidad's population jumped to over 15,000 by the end of 1789, from just under 1,400 in 1777. In 1797, Trinidad became a British crown colony, with a French-speaking population. This exodus was encouraged due to the French Revolution.
Beginning in 1845, major influxes of indentured immigrants from India and other parts of the world dramatically changed the ethnic composition of the islands. These indentured servants brought their own folk music, primarily from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, to the creole mix, resulting in chutney music. In addition to Indians, Syrians, Portuguese, Chinese and Africans came to the islands in waves between 1845 and 1917, and even after.
The Mas tradition started in the late 18th century with French plantation owners organizing masquerades (mas) and balls before enduring the fasting of Lent. The slaves, who could not take part in Carnival, formed their own, parallel celebration called "Canboulay". Canboulay (from the French cannes brulées, meaning burnt cane) is a precursor to Trinidad and Tobago Carnival, and has played an important role in the development of the music of Trinidad and Tobago.
Calypso music was developed in Trinidad in the 17th century from the West African Kaiso and canboulay music brought by African slaves imported to that Caribbean island to work on sugar plantations. These slaves, brought to toil on sugar plantations, were stripped of all connections to their homeland and family and not allowed to talk to each other. They used calypso to mock the slave masters and to communicate with each other. Many early calypsos were sung in French Creole by an individual called a griot. As calypso developed, the role of the griot became known as a chantuelle and eventually, calypsonian.
Stick fighting and African percussion music were banned in 1881, in response to the Canboulay Riots. They were replaced by bamboo "Bamboo-Tamboo" sticks beaten together, which were themselves banned in turn. In 1937 they reappeared, transformed as an orchestra of frying pans, dustbin lids and oil drums. These steelpans or pans are now a major part of the Trinidadian music scene and are a popular section of the Canboulay music contests. In 1941, the United States Navy arrived on Trinidad, and the panmen, who were associated with lawlessness and violence, helped to popularize steel pan music among soldiers, which began its international popularization.
The table shows a list of Trinidad and Tobago Carnival dates from 2009 to 2020.
|Calendar Year||Carnival Monday||Carnival Tuesday|
|2009||February 23||February 24|
|2010||February 15||February 16|
|2011||March 7||March 8|
|2012||February 20||February 21|
|2013||February 11||February 12|
|2014||March 3||March 4|
|2015||February 16||February 17|
|2016||February 8||February 9|
|2017||February 27||February 28|
|2018||February 12||February 13|
|2019||March 4||March 5|
|2020||February 24||February 25|
Today musical competitions make up a large part of formal Carnival; groups and individuals compete hard to win. To be named Calypso Monarch is one of the country's greatest honours, and the competition is aired on television. Along with the honour comes an enormous trophy, a car, TT $2,000,000 (approx.) and possible endorsements and other contracts. Other prestigious titles are the King and Queen of the Bands ; the International Soca Monarch (both Groovy and Power); the Carnival Road March; and Panorama (for steelpan). For the latter, the 2011 prize was TT$2 million. There are also limbo, stickfighting, and other competitions.
Traditionally, musicians use drums, claves, and the steelpan, created in Trinidad and reported to be the only non-electrical instrument invented in the 20th century, that has been hammered down in different areas to create a wide range of different notes. A group of performers practise weeks in advance on these pans to compete.
Trinidad and Tobago is multicultural (Amerindian, European, African, Indian, Chinese and Middle Eastern), and all of its groups have contributed musical influences to the sounds of Carnival. These cultures have combined to create a music vastly different from that of Carnival in Spain, Venice, or New Orleans.
As with other Carnivals, many participants wear elaborate costumes, often decorated with feathers and sequins. Carnival bands are organized groups made up of participants who pay for costumes fashioned by a designer and assembled by teams of volunteers. The costumed participants dance through the streets to the sounds of a steel band, a soca band or a d.j. – this is called "playing mas'". A unique feature of this parade is that locals and tourists alike participate in the parade of bands. Each band is led by a King and Queen, who wear extremely large costumes, often requiring extensions and wheels to assist the masquerader to carry it through the streets. Each year on Dimanche Gras (Carnival Sunday), a competition is held to award the King and Queen of Carnival title to two of these masqueraders.
On Carnival Monday and Tuesday, the bands are in competition to win the Band of the Year title. Small monetary prizes are associated with these titles, though they do not cover the full amount of producing the band's music or the King's or Queen's costumes. Participation occurs at all levels of society; three-time calypso monarch David Rudder described it as "from bourgeois to grassroots." Children participate from as early as parents can get them into costume; sometime even strollers are decorated.
Children can extend their fun by participating in smaller "Kiddies' Carnival" shows, competitions and parades as early as 4 weeks before the culmination of the festival. For weeks ahead, several preliminary rounds of competitions and parties (or fêtes) take place. As Carnival is part of the national curriculum, several programmes take place at schools across the country. Regional authorities handle smaller Carnival celebrations in smaller towns and villages.
A few specific characters have evolved during the history of Trinidad and Tobago's Carnival. Among these characters are:
Pierrot Grenade – he gives speeches on issues of the day, all in rhyme
Minstrels – musicians acting as wandering minstrels, wearing white facepaint
Midnight Robber – his grandiose bragging is known as "robber talk," a style which evolved from African Griot storytellers
Jab Jab -
Jab is the French Patois for "Diable" (Devil), and Molassie is the French Patois for Mélasse (Molasses). The Jab Molassie is one of several varieties of devil mas played in Trinidad and Tobago carnival. The costume consists of short pants or pants cut off at the knee, and a mask and horns. The jab molassie would carry chains, and wear locks and keys around his waist, and carry a pitch fork. He may smear his body with grease, tar, mud or coloured dyes (red, green or blue). The jab molassie "wines" or gyrates to a rhythmic beat that is played on tins or pans by his imps. While some of his imps supply the music, others hold his chain, seemingly restraining him as he pulls against them in his wild dance.
The differences among the various forms of devil mas were once distinct, but have become blurred over time.
Dame Lorraine – an amply blessed woman – stuffed in the appropriate areas – dressed as an 18th-century French aristocrat
- Official Trinidad and Tobago Tourism Site – www.gotrinidadandtobago.com
- Calendar of Events at the Trinidad Tourism Site
- National Carnival Commission Official Website
- History and Carnival Information at the National Library
- Trinidad and Tobago Carnival at DMOZ