Trinitite

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Pieces of Trinitite
Detail of Trinitite, side view
Trinitite
Levels of radioactivity in the trinity glass from two different samples as measured by gamma spectroscopy on lumps of the glass[1]

Trinitite, also known as atomsite or Alamogordo glass, is the glassy residue left on the desert floor after the plutonium-based Trinity nuclear bomb test on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico. The glass is primarily composed of arkosic sand composed of quartz grains and feldspar (both microcline and smaller amount of plagioclase with small amount of calcite, hornblende and augite in a matrix of sandy clay)[2] that was melted by the atomic blast. It is usually a light green, although color can vary. It is mildly radioactive, but is safe to handle.[3][4][5]

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, samples were gathered and sold to mineral collectors as a novelty. Traces of the material may be found at the Trinity Site today, although most of it was bulldozed and buried by the United States Atomic Energy Commission in 1953.[6] It is now illegal to take the remaining material from the site; however, material that was taken prior to this prohibition is still in the hands of collectors.

Formation[edit]

In 2005 it was theorized by Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist Robert Hermes and independent investigator William Strickfaden that much of the mineral was formed by sand which was drawn up inside the fireball itself and then rained down in a liquid form.[7] In a 2010 article in Geology Today, Nelson Eby of University of Massachusetts at Lowell and Robert Hermes described Trinitie as:

Contained within the glass are melted bits of the first atomic bomb and the support structures and various radionuclides formed during the detonation. The glass itself is marvelously complex at the tens to hundreds of micrometre scale, and besides glasses of varying composition also contains unmelted quartz grains. Air transport of the melted material led to the formation of spheres and dumbbell shaped glass particles. Similar glasses are formed during all ground level nuclear detonations and contain forensic information that can be used to identify the atomic device.

—Nelson Eby, Trinitite—the atomic rock, Geology Today[8]

A number of different types of Trinitite have been identified. Green is the most common form. Black contains iron from the tower structure. Red contains copper from the device used in the blast or from the communications cables that led away from the site. Both black and red specimens are extremely rare. Rounded "pearls" also are found, which come from melted silica that returned to solid form before hitting the ground.[9]

The glass has been described as "a layer 1 to 2 centimeters thick, with the upper surface marked by a very thin sprinkling of dust which fell upon it while it was still molten. At the bottom is a thicker film of partially fused material, which grades into the soil from which it was derived. The color of the glass is a pale bottle green, and the material is extremely vesicular with the size of the bubbles ranging to nearly the full thickness of the specimen."[2]

An estimated "4.3 x 10^19 ergs" or 4.3 x 10^12 joules of heat energy went into forming the glass and as the temperature required to melt the sand into the glass form observed was about 1470 Celsius, this was the estimated minimum temperature the sand was exposed to.[10]

One of the more unusual isotopes found in trinitite, although by no means unique as it may also have formed during the Joe-1 test, which was a partial to complete Soviet replica of the Trinity/Fat Man design, is a barium neutron activation product, the barium in the Trinity device coming from the slow explosive lens employed in the device, known as Baratol.[11]

Fake trinitite[edit]

There are many known fakes in circulation among collectors.[citation needed] These fakes use a variety of means to achieve the glassy green silica look as well as mild radioactivity, however, only trinitite from a nuclear explosion will contain certain neutron activation products that are not found in naturally radioactive ores and minerals. Gamma spectroscopy can narrow down the potential nuclear explosions from which the material formed.

Trinitite-type minerals[edit]

Occasionally, the name trinitite is broadly applied to all glassy residues of nuclear bomb testing, not just the Trinity test.[12]

Black vitreous fragments of fused sand that had been solidified by the heat of the explosion were described from French test site in Algeria (Reggane site).[13]

Kharitonchik[edit]

Kharitonchiki (singular: kharitonchik [харитончик]) is an analog of Trinitite found in Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan at ground zeroes of Soviet atmospheric nuclear tests. Also generically called Kharitonchik. They are pieces of molten rock left at ground zeroes after Soviet atmospheric nuclear tests. This porous black material is named after one of the leading Russian nuclear weapons scientists, Yulii Borisovich Khariton.[14]

Trinitite-like minerals[edit]

Trinitite has several similar naturally occurring minerals as it is itself a melt glass.[15]

Fulgurites[edit]

Main article: fulgurite

While trinitite and similar materials are anthropogenic, fulgurites, found in many desert or other sandy regions, are naturally formed, hollow glass tubes composed of quartzose sand, silica, or soil generated by lightning strikes.

Impact glasses[edit]

Further information: Impactite

A material similar to trinitite can be formed by meteor impacts, these are impact glasses.[16]

Jewelry and radiation hazard[edit]

For a time it was believed that the desert sand had simply melted from the direct radiant thermal energy of the fireball and was not particularly dangerous, thus it was marketed as suitable for use in jewelry in 1945.[17] However, it was later found to cause radiation burns if worn for a long period of time.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ P.P. Parekh, T.M. Semkow, M.A. Torres, D.K. Haines, J.M. Cooper, P.M. Rosenberg and M.E. Kitto (2006). "Radioactivity in Trinitite six decades later". Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 85 (1): 103–120. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2005.01.017. PMID 16102878. 
  2. ^ a b Optical properties of glass from Alamogordo, New Mexico
  3. ^ Kolb, W.M., and Carlock, P.G. Trinitite, 1999, The Atomic Age Mineral. This does not link to the book. http://www.orau.org/ptp/collection/hiroshimatrinity/trinitite.htm
  4. ^ Nuclear weapons question, Bad Astronomy and Universe Today Forum. May not be entirely accurate. http://www.bautforum.com/general-science/9499-nuclear-weapons-question.html
  5. ^ Analyzing Trinitite, Hunter Scott. http://www.hscott.net/analyzing-trinitite-a-radioactive-piece-of-nuclear-history/
  6. ^ Carroll L. Tyler, AEC letter to the Governor of New Mexico, July 16, 1953.
  7. ^ Robert Hermes and William Strickfaden, 2005, New Theory on the Formation of Trinitite, Nuclear Weapons Journal http://www.wsmr.army.mil/pao/TrinitySite/NewTrinititeTheory.htm
  8. ^ Eby, N, Hermes, R, Charnley N, Smoliga J (24 September 2010). "Trinitite—the atomic rock". Journal Article. Geology Today. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  9. ^ Steven L. Kay - Nuclearon - Trinitite varieties
  10. ^ "INTERIM REPORT OF CDC’S LAHDRA PROJECT – Appendix N. pg 38". 
  11. ^ "Radioactivity in Trinitite six decades later. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity Volume 85, Issue 1, 2006, Pages 103–120". 
  12. ^ Robert Twigger (2010). "Eight". Lost Oasis: In Search Of Paradise. Hachette. ISBN 9780297863878. Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  13. ^ Radiological Conditions at the Former French Nuclear Test Sites in Algeria: Preliminary Assessment and Recommendations International Atomic Energy Agency, 2005
  14. ^ "A Nuclear Family Vacation in Russia." Slate. July 10, 2006.
  15. ^ Wittke JH, Weaver JC, Bunch TE, Kennett JP, Kennett DJ, Moore AM, Hillman GC, Tankersley KB, Goodyear AC, Moore CR, Daniel IR Jr, Ray JH, Lopinot NH, Ferraro D, Israde-Alcántara I, Bischoff JL, DeCarli PS, Hermes RE, Kloosterman JB, Revay Z, Howard GA, Kimbel DR, Kletetschka G, Nabelek L, Lipo CP, Sakai S, West A, Firestone RB (2013). "Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago.". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (23): E2088–97. doi:10.1073/pnas.1301760110. PMC 3677428. PMID 23690611. 
  16. ^ "Wine Bottle Art – Ingenious Methods to Recycle Wine Bottles". Colloidal silicon dioxide. 16 October 2010. 
  17. ^ Steven L. Kay - Nuclearon - Trinitite varieties
  18. ^ "INTERIM REPORT OF CDC’S LAHDRA PROJECT – Appendix N. pg 39, 40". 

External links[edit]