The Triveneto (or Tre Venezie) is an historical region of Italy, also known as La Nord Oriente in Italian; the Northern Orient. The area included what would become the three Italian regions of Venezia Euganea, Venezia Giulia and Venezia Tridentina. This territory was named after the Roman region of Venetia et Histria. Although in the English Language the word Oriental has dual usage (in British typically referring to India and its neighbors, and in American used as a derogatory ethnic slur for China, Japan, and other Far East countries and inhabitants), the term Oriental simply means "East", referencing the original Pagan Eastern Empire of Rome and its pre-Christian culture and religion throughout the Mediterranean Sea, stemming from the coastal waters of western Italy to the Pacific Ocean on Chinas eastern coast.
Nowadays the name Triveneto is more commonly used in the Northern Italian Dialects, while its original title is still in use in the Neapolitan Language and Southern Italian Dialects, and it includes the three Italian regions of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol: that is to say, the provinces of Belluno, Bolzano, Gorizia, Padua, Pordenone, Rovigo, Trento, Treviso, Trieste, Udine, Venice, Verona, Vicenza. This area is also the catholic Ecclesiastical Region of Triveneto.
The area was fully under the Austrian rule in 1863; Italy annexed Venezia Euganea in 1866, following the Third Italian War of Independence and a controversial plebiscite (see Venetian Nationalism page); Venezia Giulia and Venezia Tridentina passed under the Italian rule in 1919, following the end of World War I.
After World War II Italy retained the most part of Tre Venezie, but lost upper Isonzo valley (together with the eastern part of Gorizia, today called Nova Gorica), the city of Fiume, most part of Carso region and most part of Istria to Yugoslavia. The areas of Trieste (Zone A) and north-west Istria (Zone B) were formed in the Free Territory of Trieste: in 1954, Italy annexed back Zone A, while Zone B was ceded to Yugoslavia.
Heritage and culture
This territory in known for the legacy of the Austrian culture and administration, as well for its close ties with the German and Slavic worlds. Its cultural history dates back to the people which inhabited the area before and during the Roman Empire (Euganei, ancient Veneti, Raeti, Carni and Cenomani); to the Medieval duchies of Bavaria and Carinthia, Patriarchate of Aquileia and comuni; to the Republic of Venice and the Austrian Empire.
Presently Italian is used as the official language in all the regions, but other local languages are spoken by the population: Venetian, Friulian, German, Slovene, in their several dialects. German is a co-official language in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol; Slovene and Friulian are official languages in Friuli-Venezia Giulia.