Trogloxenes, also called cave guests, are animal species which live close to caves or at the very entrance of the cave, but cannot live exclusively in a cave. This group consists of both extant animals, such as raccoons, rats, and bears, and extinct animals like cave bears, cave lions, cave leopards, and cave hyenas. Indications trusted by geologists and archaeologists combine to show that these animals lived there in the latter part, at least, of the third interglacial epoch, and on through the fourth and last glacial advance, when, although central Europe was free from an ice cap, an almost Arctic climate prevailed, with much rain. This is what is known as the Upper Paleolithic, when humanity was represented by the Neanderthals.
During the Upper Paleolithic, many carnivores gradually adapted by increased fur and resorting far more than previously to the shelter of caves. The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) was the most habitual in its use of caves, and occupied caves before humans began to do so.
- "Cave Plants and Animals". 9th of December <http://ans.latech.edu/homes/wakeman/caves/cavelife.html>
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ingersoll, Ernest (1920). "Cave Animals". In Rines, George Edwin. Encyclopedia Americana.
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