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Communist states 
The word has been used to describe the supreme officials of socialist states, consisting of the party leader, head of government, and head of state. This was true during periods where the positions were held by three different people. The most famous troika was the one that ruled the Soviet Union briefly in the period immediately following Stalin's death: Georgy Malenkov, Lavrentiy Beria, and Vyacheslav Molotov.
NKVD troikas 
The word came into a different use in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s: troikas supplemented the legal system for criminal cases.
European Union 
This term was used in the European Union when referring to a group composed of the Foreign Affairs Minister of the Member State holding the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union, who also held the post of High Representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), and the European Commissioner for External Relations. The "Troïka" represented the European Union in external relations that fall within the scope of the common foreign and security policy (CFSP).
With the 2009 ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, the post of Secretary-General of the Council was separated from the post of the High Representative of the CFSP, which then assumed the responsibilities of the European Commissioner for External Relations. Since only two of the original posts making up the troika still exist, it is unclear what the future of the troika arrangement in the EU is.
Other uses 
In the early 1960s, following independence from Belgium, a complicated civil war broke out in Congo. Amongst the fighting forces, there was one side supported by the United States, another by the Soviet Union, and a third trying to secede. On top of it all, the UN Secretary General of the time, Dag Hammarskjöld, wanted to establish a UN presence. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, believing the Secretary-General to be a US puppet, proposed that the Secretary-General be replaced with a troika, with one member selected by the West, one from the Communist bloc, and one from the non-aligned (neutral) states. He was unable to gather enough support, as the non-aligned states refused to back the scheme.
During the Presidency of Ronald Reagan three of his most senior White House advisers were known as "The Troika": they were White House Chief of Staff James Baker III, Counsellor to the President Ed Meese and Deputy White House Chief of Staff Michael Deaver.
Around 1983, the Social Democratic Party in Portugal was led by a troika of Carlos Mota Pinto, Jorge Nascimento Rodrigues and Eurico de Melo. Soon Mota Pinto became the single leader, and Vice-Prime Minister during the Portuguese Central Block.
The term troika has been widely used in Greece (Greek: τρόικα), Ireland, Portugal  and Spain  to refer to the presence of the European Union, European Central Bank, and International Monetary Fund in these countries since 2010 and the financial measures that these governments have taken.
In newly independent India, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Home Minister Sardar Patel and Governor-General Rajaji formed a triumvirate following the death of Mahatma Gandhi, even amidst talks of fall-outs and ego clashes amongst them.
See also 
- Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (6 May 2011). ""Τεστ αντοχής" από την τρόικα ("Stress test" by the troika)" (in Greek). www.news.ert.gr. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- RTÉ News (15 April 2011). "RTÉ.ie Extra Video: EU/IMF rescue package - troika briefing". www.rte.ie. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- Público (26 June 2011). "Estudo entregue à troika propõe fecho de 800 km de linha férrea" (in Portuguese). www.publico.pt. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- El País (11 June 2012). "La troika vigilará que se cumplan las reglas pactadas para el rescate" (in Spanish). www.elpais.com. Retrieved 11 June 2012.