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The word came into a different use in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s: troikas supplemented the legal system for criminal cases.
This term was used in the European Union when referring to a group composed of the Foreign Affairs Minister of the Member State holding the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union, who also held the post of High Representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), and the European Commissioner for External Relations. The "Troïka" represented the European Union in external relations that fall within the scope of the common foreign and security policy (CFSP).
With the 2009 ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, the post of Secretary-General of the Council was separated from the post of the High Representative of the CFSP, which then assumed the responsibilities of the European Commissioner for External Relations. Since only two of the original posts making up the troika still exist, it is unclear what the future of the troika arrangement in the EU is.
Nigel Farage commonly used "troika" to explain the how the Greek government was run after the Euro crisis in Greece. Farage pronounced "troika" as a derogatory term to refer to a "dictatorship" that is composed of a member of the International Monetary Fund, European Central Bank, and European Commission that "flies into Athens Airport and tells what the Greeks can or can not do."
During the Presidency of Ronald Reagan three of his most senior White House advisers were known as "The Troika": they were White House Chief of Staff James Baker III, Counsellor to the President Ed Meese and Deputy White House Chief of Staff Michael Deaver.
The term troika has been widely used in Greece (Greek: τρόικα), Ireland, Portugal  and Spain  to refer to the presence of the European Commission, European Central Bank, and International Monetary Fund in these countries since 2010 and the financial measures that these governments have taken.
- Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (6 May 2011). ""Τεστ αντοχής" από την τρόικα ("Stress test" by the troika)" (in Greek). www.news.ert.gr. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- RTÉ News (15 April 2011). "RTÉ.ie Extra Video: EU/IMF rescue package - troika briefing". www.rte.ie. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- Público (26 June 2011). "Estudo entregue à troika propõe fecho de 800 km de linha férrea" (in Portuguese). www.publico.pt. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- El País (11 June 2012). "La troika vigilará que se cumplan las reglas pactadas para el rescate" (in Spanish). www.elpais.com. Retrieved 11 June 2012.