Trois-Rivières

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Trois-Rivières
City
Ville de Trois-Rivières
Trois-Rivières seen from the St. Lawrence River.
Trois-Rivières seen from the St. Lawrence River.
Flag of Trois-Rivières
Flag
Coat of arms of Trois-Rivières
Coat of arms
Trois-Rivières is located in Central Quebec
Trois-Rivières
Trois-Rivières
Location in central Quebec.
Coordinates: 46°21′N 72°33′W / 46.350°N 72.550°W / 46.350; -72.550Coordinates: 46°21′N 72°33′W / 46.350°N 72.550°W / 46.350; -72.550[1]
Country  Canada
Province  Quebec
Region Mauricie
RCM None
Settled 1634
Constituted January 1, 2002
Government[2]
 • Type Trois-Rivières City Council
 • Mayor Yves Lévesque
 • Federal riding Berthier—Maskinongé and Trois-Rivières
 • Prov. riding Champlain and Maskinongé and Trois-Rivières
Area[2][3]
 • City 333.70 km2 (128.84 sq mi)
 • Land 288.90 km2 (111.54 sq mi)
 • Urban[4] 177.25 km2 (68.44 sq mi)
 • Metro[5] 1,041.15 km2 (401.99 sq mi)
Elevation 61 m (200 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • City 131,338
 • Density 454.6/km2 (1,177/sq mi)
 • Urban[4] 126,460
 • Urban density 713.5/km2 (1,848/sq mi)
 • Metro[5] 151,773
 • Metro density 145.8/km2 (378/sq mi)
 • Pop 2006-2011 Increase 4.0%
 • Dwellings 65,528
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code(s) G8T to G8Z, G9A to G9C
Area code 819
Highways
A-40
A-55
A-755

Route 138
Route 153
Route 155
Route 157
Route 352
Route 359
Website www.v3r.net

Trois-Rivières (French pronunciation: ​[tʁwɑ.ʁi.vjɛʁ], local pronunciation: [tʁwɔ.ʁi.vjaɛ̯ʁ] ( )) is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, located at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence Rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour. It is part of the densely populated Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and is approximately halfway between Montreal and Quebec City. Trois-Rivières is the economic and cultural hub of the Mauricie region. It was founded on July 4, 1634, the second permanent settlement in New France,[6] after Quebec City in 1608.

The city's name, which is French for three rivers, is named for the fact that the Saint-Maurice River, which is divided by two small islands at the river's opening, has three mouths at the Saint Lawrence River. Traditionally, Trois-Rivières was referred to in English as Three Rivers, although in more recent decades it has been referred to as Trois-Rivières in both English and French. The anglicized name still appears in many areas of the town (e.g., the city's Three Rivers Academy), bearing witness to the influence of English settlers in the town. The city's inhabitants are known as "Trifluviens" (Trifluvians).

Trois-Rivières is also the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality (TE) of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Trois-Rivières. Its geographical code is 371. Together with the regional county municipality of Les Chenaux, it forms the census division (CD) of Francheville (37). The municipalities within Les Chenaux and the former municipalities that were amalgamated into Trois-Rivières formerly constituted the regional county municipality of Francheville. Trois-Rivières is the seat of the judicial district of the same name.[7] The Trois-Rivières metropolitan area also includes the city of Bécancour which is situated on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River across the Laviolette Bridge.

History[edit]

The Sieur de Laviolette, founder of Trois-Rivières. The Laviolette Bridge is his namesake.
Historical marker commemorating the Sieur de Laviolette, founder of Trois-Rivières à Trois-Rivières
The front of the Ursulines Monastery, on rue des Ursulines.

For a long time, the area that would later become known as Trois-Rivières was frequented by Algonquins and Abenakis, who used it as a summer stopping place. The French explorer Jacques Cartier described the site while on his second journey to the New World in 1535. The name "Trois-Rivières", however, was given only in 1599, by Captain Dupont-Gravé, and first appeared on maps of the area in 1601.[8]

In 1603, while surveying the Saint-Lawrence River, Samuel de Champlain recommended establishing a permanent settlement in the area, which was finally done on July 4, 1634, by the Sieur of Laviolette. Additional inhabitants of the original city of Trois-Rivières include: Quentin Moral, Sieur de St. Quentin; Pierre Boucher, Jacques Le Neuf, Jean Godefroy de Lintot, Michel Le Neuf du Hérisson, François Hertel, François Marguerie, René Robineau, and Jean Sauvaget.[9] The city was the second to be founded in New France (after Quebec City, before Montreal) and – thanks to its strategic location – played an important role in the colony and in the fur trade. The settlement became the seat of a regional government in 1665. Ursuline nuns first arrived at the settlement in 1697, establishing the first school and helping local missionaries to Christianize the local Aboriginals and Métis.

French sovereignty in Trois-Rivières continued until 1760, when the city was captured as part of the British conquest of Quebec. Sixteen years later, on June 8, 1776, it was the theatre of the Battle of Trois-Rivières (part of the ill-fated invasion of the province of Quebec by Americans from the Boston area—les Bostonnais) during the American Revolutionary War.

Trois-Rivières continued to grow in stature throughout the period and beyond; in 1792 it became the seat of a judicial district, and in 1852, that of a Roman Catholic diocese, the Diocese of Trois-Rivières.

In 1908, the greater part of the city of Trois-Rivières was destroyed by a fire in which the majority of the city's original buildings, many dating back to French colonial years, were destroyed. Only a few were spared, including the Ursuline Monastery and the De Tonnancour Manor. As a result of the destruction, a major redesign and renovation of the city was undertaken, including the widening and renewal of many of the city's roads. As well, many new businesses and industries became established in the town, which attracted many new residents.

In the 1960s, Trois-Rivières undertook a large-scale project of economic diversification, including the establishment of several cultural institutions and attractions. The Old City of Trois-Rivières was declared an "historic sector" in 1964. The Laviolette Bridge, linking Trois-Rivières to Bécancour and the south shore of the Saint-Lawrence River, was opened officially on December 20, 1967. Finally, in 1969, the city appeared on Canada's academic map with the establishment of the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, known for its chiropractic school, its podiatric medical education and its excellent programs for primary and secondary school education.

Although historically an important center of commerce, trade and population, Trois-Rivières has relinquished much of its earlier importance to the two major cities of Quebec: the metropolis of Montreal and the capital of Quebec City. It does, however, remain one of the principal medium-sized cities of Quebec, along with Saguenay, Sherbrooke and Gatineau.

Municipal reorganization[edit]

On January 1, 2002, the former city of Trois-Rivières along with its neighbouring towns of Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Sainte-Marthe-du-Cap, Saint-Louis-de-France, Trois-Rivières-Ouest, and the municipality of Pointe-du-Lac, were combined to form the new city of Trois-Rivières.

Cityscape[edit]

Architecture in old Trois-Rivières.
Downtown Trois-Rivières.

The city's main street is Boulevard des Forges, an area several blocks long in the heart of the Old City composed of century-old buildings housing a great variety of cafés, restaurants, clubs, bars, and shops. In the warmer months, the area is regularly closed to vehicular traffic to accommodate various festivals and events, turning the downtown core into a pedestrian mall.

Notable landmarks include the Forges du Saint-Maurice, a foundry dating back to the 1730s, the Ursulines Monastery, and Notre-Dame-du-Cap Basilica.

Economy[edit]

Trois-Rivières is Canada's oldest industrial city, with its first foundry established in 1738.[10] The forge produced iron and cast for 150 years, much of it being shipped to France to be used in Royal Navy ships.[11] The first port facility was built in 1818 near rue Saint-Antoine, and today handles 2.5 million tonnes of cargo annually.[12] The first railway was built in 1879 to support the growing lumber industry.[13]

The city was known as the pulp and paper industry capital of the world from the late 1920s until the early 1960s.[14] The city once had five mills in operation (Trois-Rivières Ouest, Wayagamack, C.I.P. and St-Maurice Paper). Today, there are three mills left operating (Kruger Trois-Rivières Ouest, Kruger Wayagamack and Cascades Lupel ex-StMaurice Paper), the closures due largely to a decline in newsprint demand and globalization. The closures were not limited to just the pulp and paper industry; Trois-Rivières experienced an industrial decline in the 1980s and 1990s, with the closure of several textile mills, with unemployment rising to 14 percent in the 1990s.[15]

Trois-Rivières is attempting an industrial revitalization by establishing technology parks and taking advantage of its central location to both Montreal and Quebec City, its university and port. An example of the new economy is Marmen Incorporated, which manufactures wind turbine towers and employs 1,000 people between its operations in Trois-Rivières and Matane.

The city's other prominent industries include metal transformation, electronics, thermoplastics, as well as cabinet making and the production of food crops. An industrial park adjoining Trois-Rivières Airport serves also as a major centre for the aeronautical industry.

Climate[edit]

The area has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). Winters are long, cold, and snowy: the January high is −7.1 °C (19.2 °F), with lows dropping to −20 °C (−4 °F) on 27 nights per year and to −30 °C (−22 °F) on 2.9 nights.[16] Snowfall averages 259 centimetres (102 in), with reliable snow cover from December to March.[16] Summers are warm, with a July high of 25.5 °C (77.9 °F), though highs reach 30 °C (86 °F) on 5.5 days per summer.[16] Spring and autumn are short and crisp. Precipitation averages 1,123 millimetres (44.2 in), and is the greatest during summer.

Climate data for Trois-Rivières (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
11.0
(51.8)
17.5
(63.5)
31.5
(88.7)
32.2
(90)
34.5
(94.1)
34.5
(94.1)
36.1
(97)
32.5
(90.5)
27.2
(81)
20.0
(68)
12.5
(54.5)
36.1
(97)
Average high °C (°F) −7.1
(19.2)
−4.4
(24.1)
1.4
(34.5)
9.9
(49.8)
18.2
(64.8)
23.3
(73.9)
25.5
(77.9)
24.4
(75.9)
19.4
(66.9)
11.9
(53.4)
4.1
(39.4)
−3.1
(26.4)
10.3
(50.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.1
(10.2)
−9.7
(14.5)
−3.6
(25.5)
4.8
(40.6)
12.3
(54.1)
17.6
(63.7)
20.0
(68)
18.9
(66)
14.2
(57.6)
7.4
(45.3)
0.5
(32.9)
−7.4
(18.7)
5.2
(41.4)
Average low °C (°F) −17.1
(1.2)
−14.9
(5.2)
−8.6
(16.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
6.3
(43.3)
11.8
(53.2)
14.4
(57.9)
13.4
(56.1)
8.9
(48)
2.8
(37)
−3.1
(26.4)
−11.6
(11.1)
0.2
(32.4)
Record low °C (°F) −41.1
(−42)
−35.6
(−32.1)
−35.0
(−31)
−17.2
(1)
−6.1
(21)
−1.5
(29.3)
3.5
(38.3)
1.1
(34)
−7.2
(19)
−10.6
(12.9)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−35.5
(−31.9)
−41.1
(−42)
Precipitation mm (inches) 82.9
(3.264)
68.8
(2.709)
75.6
(2.976)
79.2
(3.118)
96.3
(3.791)
107.0
(4.213)
116.8
(4.598)
101.3
(3.988)
100.6
(3.961)
98.4
(3.874)
102.4
(4.031)
93.4
(3.677)
1,122.8
(44.205)
Rainfall mm (inches) 24.5
(0.965)
19.5
(0.768)
32.0
(1.26)
66.8
(2.63)
96.3
(3.791)
107.0
(4.213)
116.8
(4.598)
101.3
(3.988)
100.6
(3.961)
95.7
(3.768)
75.4
(2.969)
28.1
(1.106)
863.9
(34.012)
Snowfall cm (inches) 58.5
(23.03)
49.3
(19.41)
43.6
(17.17)
12.5
(4.92)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
2.8
(1.1)
27.1
(10.67)
65.3
(25.71)
259.0
(101.97)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 13.9 11.9 11.1 11.9 14.4 14.4 15.0 12.8 12.8 14.3 14.4 14.2 161.1
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 2.9 2.6 5.4 10.5 14.4 14.4 15.0 12.8 12.8 14.2 10.4 4.0 119.5
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 12.3 10.3 7.0 2.7 0.07 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.65 5.6 11.5 50.2
Source: Environment Canada[16]

Culture[edit]

Trois-Rivières hosts the FestiVoix de Trois-Rivières, a 10-day summer music festival which attracts in excess of 300,000 visitors annually.[17] The city also hosts the Festival International de la Poésie – an international poetry festival – as well as the Festival International Danse Encore,[18] and the MetalFest de Trois-Rivières every November. In 2009, Trois-Rivières was designated as the 2009 Cultural Capital of Canada for cities having a population of 125,000 or more.[19]

Trois-Rivières is officially the "Poetry Capital of Quebec"[20][21] and numerous plaques displaying poetic verses are installed throughout the centre of the city, and its International Festival of Poetry (held each year in the first week of October) honours this title.

Demographics[edit]

Trois-Rivières
Year Pop. ±%
1871 11,107 —    
1881 12,340 +11.1%
1891 11,784 −4.5%
1901 13,540 +14.9%
1911 18,445 +36.2%
1921 33,072 +79.3%
1931 48,699 +47.3%
1941 59,685 +22.6%
1951 72,154 +20.9%
1956 83,189 +15.3%
1961 93,451 +12.3%
1966 99,974 +7.0%
1971 103,703 +3.7%
1976 106,031 +2.2%
1981 111,453 +5.1%
1986 114,675 +2.9%
1991 121,483 +5.9%
1996 124,417 +2.4%
2001 122,395 −1.6%
2006 126,323 +3.2%
2011 131,338 +4.0%
[22][23]

Prior to amalgamation in 2001, the new city of Trois-Rivières was divided among six municipalities. The largest visible minority groups in Trois-Rivières are Blacks (2.2%) and Asians (1.4%).

Municipal population, pre-amalgamation (December 14, 2000)[24]

Municipality Population
Trois-Rivières 48 285
Cap-de-la-Madeleine 32 927
Trois-Rivières-Ouest 24 170
Saint-Louis-de-France 7 798
Pointe-du-Lac 6 846
Sainte-Marthe-du-Cap 6 428
Total 126 454

Age structure

  • 0–14 years: 16.1%
  • 15–64 years: 68.6%
  • 65 years and over: 15.3%

Religious groups

Sport[edit]

Trois-Rivières has an internationally known racetrack named Circuit Trois-Rivières. The track hosts American Le Mans Series, SCCA Pro Racing Trans-Am Series, NASCAR Canadian Tire Series, and the Star Mazda Series events.[25]

In baseball, Trois-Rivières is represented by the Canadian American Association of Professional Baseball's Trois-Rivières Aigles which play their home games at Stade Fernand-Bédard. In ice hockey, Trois-Rivières is represented by the Trois-Rivières Viking of the Ligue Nord-Américaine de Hockey, which play their home games at the Colisée de Trois-Rivières. The city is also the site of the only remaining pari-mutuel (wagering) harness racing track in Quebec, Hippodrome de Trois Rivieres, which currently operates live standardbred racing from May through October. In 2014, the hippodrome will resurrect the Prix D'Ete, a once major Canadian race for four year-old pacers that had been contested in Montreal until 1992.

Transportation[edit]

Trois-Rivières aerial view

Local bus service is provided by the Société de transport de Trois-Rivières. The Laviolette Bridge links Trois-Rivières to Bécancour of the Centre-du-Québec administrative region on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River. An airport serves the city.

On April 8, 2014 during morning commute an SUV fell into a giant pothole in Trois-Rivières caused by heavy rain accumulation. Nobody was injured during the incident.[26]


Media[edit]

Notables[edit]

Sister city[edit]

Pano Trois-Rivieres.jpg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reference number 63803 of the Commission de toponymie du Québec (French)
  2. ^ a b Geographic code 37067 in the official Répertoire des municipalités (French)
  3. ^ a b "Census Profile — Trois-Rivières". Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. 2012-02-08. Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "Census Profile — Trois-Rivières, Population Centre". Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. 2012-02-08. Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  5. ^ a b "Census Profile — Trois-Rivières, Census Metropolitan Area". Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. 2012-02-08. Retrieved 24 May 2012. . The census metropolitan area consists of Trois-Rivières, Bécancour, Champlain, Saint-Luc-de-Vincennes, Saint-Maurice, Wôlinak, Yamachiche. In the 2006 census, the census metropolitan area had not included Saint-Luc-de-Vincennes or Yamachiche.
  6. ^ Roy-Sole, Monique. "A Tale of Tenacity", Canadian Geographic Magazine, April 2009, Vol. 129, No. 2, p. 31.
  7. ^ Territorial Division Act. Revised Statutes of Quebec D-11.
  8. ^ untitled[dead link]
  9. ^ Report Concerning the Archives of Canada for the year 1905. Vol I. of III., p. li.
  10. ^ "Forges du Saint-Maurice National Historic Site of Canada". Parks Canada. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  11. ^ Roy-Sole, Monique. "A Tale of Tenacity", Canadian Geographic Magazine, April 2009, Vol. 129, No. 2, p. 32
  12. ^ "Le Port de Trois-Rivières". Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  13. ^ Roy-Sole, Monique. "A Tale of Tenacity", Canadian Geographic Magazine, April 2009, Vol. 129, No. 2, p. 35
  14. ^ Roy-Sole, Monique. "A Tale of Tenacity", Canadian Geographic Magazine, April 2009, Vol. 129, No. 2, p. 36
  15. ^ Roy-Sole, Monique. "A Tale of Tenacity", Canadian Geographic Magazine, April 2009, Vol. 129, No. 2, p. 37
  16. ^ a b c d "Trois-Rivières". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Le FestiVoix de Trois-Rivières". Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  18. ^ "Accueil". Festival encore. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  19. ^ Roy-Sole, Monique. "A Tale of Tenacity", Canadian Geographic Magazine, April 2009, Vol. 129, No. 2, p. 38
  20. ^ "Tourisme Trois-Rivières". 
  21. ^ "Festival International de la Poésie". 
  22. ^ "Évolution démographique des 10 principales villes du Québec (sur la base de 2006) selon leur limites territoriales actuelles1, Recensements du Canada de 1871 à 2006" (in French). Institut de la statistique du Québec. 2008-02-01. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  23. ^ These figures correspond to the territory of the city of Trois-Rivières following the municipal reorganizations of 2002 and 2006.
  24. ^ "Ville de Trois-Rivières". Laville.v3r.net. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  25. ^ "Grand Prix de Trois-Rivières". Gp3r.com. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  26. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/giant-pothole-swallows-suv-in-trois-rivi%C3%A8res-1.2602793?cmp=fbtl
  27. ^ "Le français au micro | zone radio". Radio-Canada.ca. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  28. ^ "Jacques de Noyon 1668-1745". Ontarioplaques.com. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  29. ^ WHERE ARE THEY NOW? The 'Star Wars Kid' Sued The People Who Made Him Famous. Business Insider (2010-05-12). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.

External links[edit]