Trolleybuses in Naples
|Trolleybuses in Naples|
|An AnsaldoBreda F19 of ANM at Piazza Carlo III|
|Locale||Naples, Campania, Italy|
|Open||ANM (ex-ATAN) system: 8 May 1940
CTP (ex-TPN) system: January 1964
|Operator(s)||same as owners|
|Electrification||750 V DC (both systems)|
Trolleybuses in Naples (Italian: Rete filoviaria di Napoli) provide a portion of the public transport service in the city and comune of Naples, in the region of Campania, southern Italy. Two independent trolleybus systems are in operation, both publicly owned. That of Azienda Napoletana Mobilità (ANM) opened in 1940, whereas the smaller trolleybus network of Compagnia Trasporti Pubblici di Napoli (CTP) opened in 1964. As of 2011, the ANM system has six routes and the CTP two. Worldwide, Naples is one of only two metropolitan areas possessing two independent trolleybus systems as of 2011, the other being São Paulo, Brazil.
The first trolleybus service in Naples was inaugurated on 8 May 1940 by Azienda Tranvie Autofilovie Napoli (English: Tramway-Trolleybus Company of Naples) (ATAN), which also operated the urban tram system. At its maximum extent, the ATAN system had 31 trolleybus routes (albeit, counting many shortworkings and variations with overlapping sections). ATAN was reorganised in 1995 as the Azienda Napoletana Mobilità (ANM).
The Tranvie Provinciali di Napoli (TPN), a separate company that operated suburban buses and a suburban tramway, opened the second trolleybus network in Naples on 21 January 1964(or 26 January), on a route connecting central Naples with Piazzale della Libertà in Secondigliano. This unnumbered route was extended by several kilometres to Aversa in 1967, after which time the TPN system was often referred to as the "Naples–Aversa" trolleybus system in transport publications. In 1978, TPN was reorganised as the Consorzio Trasporti Pubblici di Napoli (CTP), renamed in 2001 to Compagnia Trasporti Pubblici di Napoli (still CTP). The routes were given numbers in the early 1980s, the two routes at that time being M13 (Naples – Aversa) and M15 (Naples – Secondigliano/Rione 167). The M prefix stood for Maddalena depot (located on Viale Maddalena in Naples), TPN's/CTP's only depot/garage for many years. That depot closed in 1999, and after two years of temporary accommodation in leased facilities, CTP's trolleybuses moved to Teverola depot in 2001, but the trolleybus routes retained their longstanding M prefix to avoid confusion among riders.
All of the overhead trolley wiring in central Naples is owned by ANM, the limit of the CTP-owned wiring being the southwest end of Via Don Bosco (just east of Piazza Carlo III). However, CTP trolleybuses are allowed to operate through to Piazza Garibaldi (along Corso Garibaldi), powered from ANM-owned wires, under a longstanding agreement between the two public agencies.
Five of the current eight trolleybus routes are suburban routes, connecting Naples with other municipalities, while the other three (routes 201–203) operate entirely within Napoli proper.
As of 2010, the ANM system includes the following six trolleybus routes:
- 201 Piazza Carlo III – Piazza Cavour – Via Medina/Piazza Municipio
- 202 Piazza G.B. Vico – Piazza Garibaldi – Via Medina
- 203 Parcheggio Brin – Piazza Cavour/Via Broggia
- 254 Napoli/Via Nicolini (Ponti Rossi) – Portici (Piazza Poli) (terminus known as Bellavista until 2001)
- 255/ Napoli/Parcheggio Brin – Portici (Piazza San Ciro)
- 256/ Portici (Via Lagno) - Napoli/Piazza Municipio
Route 255/, pronounced as 255-barrata (meaning 255-barrè in British English, 255-slash in American English) (a short turn service) is a temporary replacement for route 255, which connects Naples with Torre del Greco. Since September 2009, service on route 255 has been temporarily suspended due to major road work in the town of Ercolano. Trolleybus service is temporarily cut back to Portici (Piazza San Ciro), as route 255-barrata, and the portion of route 255 between Portici and Torre del Greco is temporarily replaced by motorbus route 655. In Ercolano, route 255 passes the entrance to the ruins of the ancient city of Herculaneum (in Italian simply Ercolano, the same as the present-day, inhabited city), on Corso Resina.
Route 203 is the newest route; it began operation on 2 September 2009. Routes 201 and 202 opened in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The three surviving suburban routes are much older; routes 254 and 255 opened in January 1962 and route 256 in May 1963.
In 2012 the line 256 is attested at Via Lagno in Portici and renamed 256/, thereby breaking the link for San Giorgio a Cremano.
The CTP system currently has two trolleybus routes:
- M11 Metro line 1's Piscinola/Scampìa station – Aversa – Teverola
- M13 Napoli/Piazza Garibaldi – Aversa – Teverola
Route M13 was extended from Aversa to Teverola in December 2001, and route M15 was withdrawn at that time. With a one-way length of approximately 22 km, route M13 is the longest trolleybus route in western Europe. Route M11 began operation in June 2005, but did not require any new wiring; its 2 km section closest to Piscinola metro station is not equipped with overhead wires, and the trolleybuses serving the route use their auxiliary diesel engines along that section, while the remainder of the route uses overhead wiring already in place for route M13.
There are currently plans to construct some new routes, in some cases making use of overhead wiring from former routes that remains in place but is currently disused. The plans include the conversion of the following ANM bus routes into trolleybus routes:
- R4 Ospedale Cardarelli – Piazza Municipio (new route, presumably to be renumbered 204); this project has been tentatively approved and is awaiting the start of construction
- R5 Parcheggio Brin – MN1 Piscinola/Scampìa station (new route, presumably to be renumbered 205); this proposal is still under study.
These plans were already in place in 2005, along with plans to convert bus route C47 (Piazza G.B. Vico – Piazza Medaglie d'Oro) to trolleybuses, which in effect would have been a restoration of former trolleybus route 247 (closed in 1973), However, this plan for route C47 was cancelled in 2010. In the relatively recent past (in 2000), ANM also had plans to restore trolleybus routes 253 (Naples – Ercolano) and 257 (Naples – Bellavista – Ercolano), which previously operated until the mid-1980s and from 1973–76, respectively, but whose disused wiring was retained for many years. However, those plans have been dropped, and the disused wiring was removed in 2004.
- ANM: 87 AnsaldoBreda F19 (built 1999–2002), numbered F9079-F9165
- CTP: 3 AnsaldoBreda F19, nos. 101–103 (built 2000); and 10 Solaris-Ganz Trollino (built 2004), nos. 121–130
All 100 vehicles are equipped with diesel engines to allow limited operation away from the overhead wires.
ANM's fleet also includes one preserved historic trolleybus, a 1961-built Alfa Romeo 1000F trolleybus, No. 8021. ANM's modern, low-floor AnsaldoBreda trolleybuses began to enter service in October 2000, replacing Alfa Romeo vehicles, and the last of the latter were withdrawn in early March 2001. The agency preserved three of them (nos. 8021, 8038 and 8306). No. 8021 was fully restored to historic condition and livery in 2003. It is not used for normal service, but operates occasionally on special excursions, and on certain summer Sundays it runs in public service on a special city-centre-only loop route to promote awareness of public transport's positive role in helping to preserve the environment. The power supply of the ANM system was raised in 2001–03 from 600 Volts to 750V, but No. 8021's motors have not been modified to allow it to operate at the higher voltage. On days when the historic trolleybus is operated, the voltage of the entire trolleybus system must be temporarily reduced to 600V. The modern AnsaldoBreda vehicles are able to operate at either voltage.
The only trolleybus depot available to the ANM network is the Stella Polare depot. However, some ANM trolleybuses are stored at the Via Ferraris and Carlo III bus depots, which they use their diesel engines to enter and exit.
CTP has several depots for its mostly motorbus fleet, but the only one equipped for trolleybuses is the Teverola depot, which was built in 1994 and since 2001 has been the outer terminus of route M13.
- Murray, Alan (2000). World Trolleybus Encyclopaedia, p. 69. Yateley, Hampshire, UK: Trolleybooks. ISBN 0-904235-18-1.
- Isgar, Carl (Jan.-Feb. 2009). "In the Shadow of Vesuvius - Part 2". Trolleybus Magazine No. 283, pp. 1–9. National Trolleybus Association (UK). ISSN 0266-7452.
- Gregoris, Paolo; Rizzoli, Francesco; Serra, Claudio (2003). Giro d'Italia in filobus [Tour of Italy by Trolleybus] (in Italian). Cortona: Calosci Editore. pp. 36–37, 226–238. ISBN 88-7785-193-7.
- Webb, Mary (ed.) (2011). Jane's Urban Transport Systems 2011-2012, pp. "" and "" (in foreword). Coulsdon, Surrey (UK): Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2954-8.
- Isgar, Carl (Nov.-Dec. 2008). "In the Shadow of Vesuvius - Part 1". Trolleybus Magazine No. 282, pp. 122–129. National Trolleybus Association (UK). ISSN 0266-7452.
- "La storia [History]" (in Italian). ANM. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- Morgan, Steve (Nov.-Dec. 2004). "Alfa Romeo Swansong". Trolleybus Magazine No. 258, pp. 126–129.
- Trolleybus Magazine (TM) No. 288 (Nov.-Dec. 2009), p. 139.
- TM No. 268 (Jul.-Aug. 2006), pp. 85–86.
- Bevere, Eduardo; Chiaro, Gerardo; Cozzolino, Andrea (1998). Storia dei Trasporti Urbani di Napoli, Volume 1 [The History of Urban Transport in Naples, Vol. 1] (in Italian). Cortona: Grafiche Calosci-Cortona. pp. 315–321, 532–533. ISBN 88-7785-145-7.
- TM No. 280 (Jul.-Aug. 2008), p. 91.
- TM No. 264 (Nov.-Dec. 2005), p. 137. ISSN 0266-7452.
- Trolleybus Magazine No. 295 (Jan.-Feb. 2011), p. 19.
- "Bilancio sociale 2005" [2005 Company budget report] (PDF) (in Italian). ANM. June 2006. pp. 44–45. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- TM No. 271 (Jan.-Feb. 2007), pp. 18–19.
- TM No. 235 (Jan.-Feb. 2001), p. 14.
- TM No. 272 (March–April 2007), p. 42.
Media related to Trolleybuses in Naples at Wikimedia Commons