Troparil (also known as (–)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-phenyltropane, WIN 35,065-2, or β-CPT) is a stimulant drug used in scientific research. Troparil is a phenyltropane based dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) and is derived from methylecgonidine. Troparil is documented to be a few times more potent than cocaine as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, but is less potent as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and has a duration spanning a few times longer, since the phenyl ring is directly connected to tropane through a non-hydrolyzable carbon-carbon bond. The lack of an ester linkage removes the local anesthetic action from the drug, so troparil is a pure stimulant. This change in activity also makes troparil slightly less cardiotoxic than cocaine. The most commonly used form of troparil is the tartrate salt, but the hydrochloride and naphthalenedisulfonate salts are also available, as well as the free base.
The first known published synthesis of troparil and WIN 35,428 is by Clarke and co-workers during the 1970s. Apparently it was their intention to separate the stimulant actions of cocaine from its toxicity and dependence liability. Troparil is the only regular phenyltropane having a NET affinity that exceeds the DAT affinity.
Phenyltropanes are likely to have less abuse and dependency compared with cocaine.
Troparil is used in scientific research into the dopamine reuptake transporter. 3H-radiolabelled forms of troparil have been used in humans and animals to map the distribution of dopamine transporters in the brain. It is also used for animal research into stimulant drugs as an alternative to cocaine which produces similar effects, but avoids the stringent licensing requirements for the use of cocaine itself.
Troparil has similar effects to cocaine in animal studies, but recreational use of this compound to date has proven extremely rare. Despite being easily made by the reaction of methylecgonidine with phenylmagnesium bromide, the relative scarcity of methylecgonidine and the demanding reaction conditions required for the synthesis put production of this compound beyond the capacity of most illicit drug manufacturers, and legitimate supplies of troparil are available only in very small quantities for a very high price.
^Carroll, F. I.; Kotian, P.; Dehghani, A.; Gray, J. L.; Kuzemko, M. A.; Parham, K. A.; Abraham, P.; Lewin, A. H.; Boja, J. W.; Kuhar, M. J. (1995). "Cocaine and 3 beta-(4'-substituted phenyl)tropane-2 beta-carboxylic acid ester and amide analogues. New high-affinity and selective compounds for the dopamine transporter". Journal of Medical Chemistry38 (2): 379–388. doi:10.1021/jm00002a020. PMID7830281.edit
^Phillips, K.; Luk, A.; Soor, G.; Abraham, J.; Leong, S.; Butany, J. (2009). "Cocaine cardiotoxicity: a review of the pathophysiology, pathology, and treatment options". American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions9 (3): 177–196. doi:10.2165/00129784-200909030-00005. PMID19463023.edit
^ abClarke, R. L.; Daum, S. J.; Gambino, A. J.; Aceto, M. D.; Pearl, J.; Levitt, M.; Cumiskey, W. R.; Bogado, E. F. (1973). "Compounds affecting the central nervous system. 4. 3 Beta-phenyltropane-2-carboxylic esters and analogs". Journal of Medical Chemistry16 (11): 1260–1267. doi:10.1021/jm00269a600. PMID4747968.edit
^Wee, S.; Carroll, F.; Woolverton, W. (2006). "A reduced rate of in vivo dopamine transporter binding is associated with lower relative reinforcing efficacy of stimulants". Neuropsychopharmacology31 (2): 351–362. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300795. PMID15957006.edit
^Scheffel U. et al. (1989). "Cocaine receptors: In Vivo Labelling with 3H-(-) cocaine, 3H-WIN 35,065-2, and 3H-WIN 35,428". Synapse4 (4): 390–392. doi:10.1002/syn.890040415. PMID2603151.
^Zakusov VV, Naumova BI (1985). "Pharmacology of troparil". Farmakologiia i Toksikologiia48 (1): 15–19. PMID3838516.
^Balster, R. L.; Carroll, F. I.; Graham, J. H.; Mansbach, R. S.; Rahman, M. A.; Philip, A.; Lewin, A. H.; Showalter, V. M. (1991). "Potent substituted-3 beta-phenyltropane analogs of cocaine have cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects". Drug and alcohol dependence29 (2): 145–151. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(91)90043-X. PMID1797525.edit
^Xu, L.; Kelkar, S.; Lomenzo, S.; Izenwasser, S.; Katz, J.; Kline, R.; Trudell, M. (1997). "Synthesis, dopamine transporter affinity, dopamine uptake inhibition, and locomotor stimulant activity of 2-substituted 3 beta-phenyltropane derivatives". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry40 (6): 858–863. doi:10.1021/jm960739c. PMID9083474.edit
^Xu L, Trudell ML (1996). "Stereoselective Synthesis of 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-Phenyltropane Derivatives. Enhanced Stereoselectivity Observed for the Conjugate Addition Reaction of Phenylmagnesium Bromide Derivatives with Anhydro Dichloromethane". Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry33 (6): 2037–2039. doi:10.1002/jhet.5570330676.