A trophy is a reward for a specific achievement, and serves as recognition or evidence of merit. Trophies are most often awarded for sporting events, from youth sports to professional level athletics. In many sports medals (or, in North America, rings) are often given out either instead of or along with trophies.
Originally the word trophy, derived from the Greek tropaion, referred to arms, standards, other property, or human captives and body parts (e.g. headhunting) captured in battle. These war trophies commemorated the military victories of a state, army or individual combatant. In modern warfare trophy taking is discouraged, but this sense of the word is reflected in hunting trophies and human trophy collecting by serial killers.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Types
- 4 Sporting
- 5 Military
- 6 Professional awards
- 7 Hunting
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Trophies have marked victories since ancient times. The word trophy coined in English in 1550, was derived from the French trophée in 1513, "a prize of war", from Old French trophee, from Latin trophaeum, monument to victory, variant of tropaeum, which in turn is the latinisation of the Greek τρόπαιον (tropaion), the neuter of τροπαῖος (tropaios), "of defeat" or "for defeat", but generally "of a turning" or "of a change", from τροπή (tropē), "a turn, a change" and that from the verb τρέπω (trepo), "to turn, to alter".
In ancient Greece, trophies were made on the battlefields of victorious battles, from captured arms and standards, and were hung upon a tree or a large stake made to resemble a warrior. Often, these ancient trophies were inscribed with a story of the battle and were dedicated to various gods. Trophies made about naval victories sometimes consisted of entire ships (or what remained of them) laid out on the beach. To destroy a trophy was considered a sacrilege.
The ancient Romans kept their trophies closer to home. The Romans built magnificent trophies in Rome, including columns and arches atop a foundation. Most of the stone trophies that once adorned huge stone memorials in Rome have been long since stolen.
In ancient Greece, the winners of the Olympic games initially received no trophies except laurel wreaths. Later the winner also received an amphora with sacred olive oil. In local games, the winners received different trophies, such as a tripod vase, a bronze shield or a silver cup.
In ancient Rome, money usually was given to winners instead of trophies.
Chalices were given to winners of sporting events at least as early as the very late 1600s in the New World. For example, the Kyp Cup (made by silversmith Jesse Kyp), a small, two-handled, sterling cup in the Henry Ford Museum, was given to the winner of a horse race between two towns in New England in about 1699. Chalices, particularly, are associated with sporting events, and were traditionally made in silver. Winners of horse races, and later boating and early automobile races, were the typical recipients of these trophies. The Davis Cup, Stanley Cup, America's Cup and numerous World Cups are all now famous cup-shaped trophies given to sports winners.
Today, trophies are much less expensive, and thus much more pervasive, thanks to mass-produced plastic trophies.
Trophies often represent the event they are in, for example in basketball tournaments, you can notice that the trophy takes shape of a basketball player, or a basketball. Trophies can take the shape of two-handled cups, bowls, or mugs (all usually engraved); statues of people, animals, and architecture while displaying words, numbers or images. While trophies traditionally have been made with metal figures, wood columns, and wood bases, in recent years they have been made with plastic figures and marble bases. This is to retain the weight traditionally associated with a quality award and make them more affordable to use as recognition items. Recently trophies have also been made using a resin and molds.
The Academy Awards Oscar is a trophy with a stylized human; the Hugo Award for science fiction is a space ship; and the Wimbledon awards for its singles champions are a large loving cup for men and a large silver plate for women.
Hunting trophies are reminders of successes from hunting animals, such as an animal's head mounted to be hung on a wall.
Resin trophies come in a variety of sports or generic forms. These resin awards are often used for participation awards and can be custom made to include an event logo. These can be custom molded to create a unique trophy for businesses, youth sports organizations, and non profits alike.
Perpetual trophies are held by the winner until next event when winner must compete again in order to keep the trophy. In some competitions winners in three consecutive or non-consecutive events receive the trophy or its copy in permanent ownership.
Some sporting trophies include:
Some of the world's most famous association football trophies are:
- FIFA World Cup Trophy — Awarded to the winners of the FIFA World Cup from the 1974 FIFA World Cup onwards. Previous winners were awarded the Jules Rimet Trophy (known simply as Victory until 1949), which was awarded in perpetuity to Brazil after their 3rd win in the 1970 FIFA World Cup. Both are referred to colloquially as the World Cup
- Copa Libertadores Trophy - known simply as Libertadores or Copa, awarded to the winners of the Copa Libertadores since 1960. It is the most prestigious laurel in the Western Hemisphere.
- European Champion Clubs' Cup - colloquially the European Cup, awarded to the winners of the European Cup (before 1992/3) and the UEFA Champions League (since 1992/3). It is the most prestigious trophy in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is affectionately known as "old big ears" due to its shape.
- The FA Cup- awarded to winners of the primary English association football domestic knockout tournament, officially The Football Association Challenge Cup, often referred to as just the FA Cup. The FA Cup was inaugurated in 1871 and is therefore the oldest tournament in club football. The original trophy, however, was stolen in 1895 and the current trophy is actually the fourth.
- The Scottish Cup - awarded to the winners of the primary domestic knockout cup tournament of Scotland (the Scottish Football Association Challenge Cup, or just Scottish Cup). The tournament was founded in 1873 and still presents the original trophy. The Scottish Cup is therefore the world's oldest national trophy.
The original Jules Rimet Trophy was stolen in Brazil in 1983 and has never been recovered. Replicas were awarded to winning nations up to the retirement of the genuine trophy. However, prior to the 1966 final, The Football Association made an (unauthorised) replica in secret in gilded bronze for use in post-match celebrations due to security concerns – the genuine trophy was made out of close to 2 kg of pure gold. This has led to several conspiracy theories regarding which trophy was stolen – the FA replica, or the real trophy. FIFA purchased the replica for £254,500 (ten times the reserve price) in 1997, with the inflated price attributed to such rumours. This trophy is held on behalf of FIFA by the National Football Museum in Preston. The current FIFA World Cup trophy incribe the names of the teams that won the award at the underneath the base of the trophy.
A club that manages to win the Copa Libertadores trophy three consecutive times retain the trophy permanently. The current trophy has been used since 1975. Like the FIFA World Cup trophy, the winners of each edition of the tournament has their name inscribed on the trophy; unlike the FIFA World Cup trophy, a pedastal contains a list of winners in the form of badges. The current pedestal is the fourth in the trophy's history, having been used since 2009. The original trophy was awarded to Estudiantes de La Plata in 1970 (after their third win) - the present trophy is the third, identical edition.
Clubs that win the European Champion Clubs' Cup three times in successive seasons, or five times in total, are permitted to retain the trophy in perpetuity. The present trophy has been used since 2005/06 after Liverpool FC's fifth win in 2005. The original trophy was awarded to Real Madrid CF in 1966 (after their sixth win) – the present trophy is the sixth (identical) edition.
Four trophies have served as an award (out of five made) for the winner of the FA Cup. The first (1871–1895) was stolen in Birmingham and melted down, the second (1896–1910) was presented to Lord Kinnaird and is presently held by David Gold, the chairman of Birmingham City after private auction in 2005. The third (1910–1992) was retired after the 1992 final due to fragility and is held by The Football Association; two exact replicas of it were made, one of which has been awarded to the winners 1993–present, the other remains as a backup in case of damage to the primary trophy.
- Wimbledon tennis trophies - although having no formal name, a cup is presented to the Wimbledon Men's (Gentlemen's) Singles Champion (The All England Lawn Tennis Club Single Handed Champion of the World, as stated on the cup itself). The women's (Ladies) Singles winner is presented with the Venus Rosewater Dish. Other trophies are presented to the winners of the Doubles and Mixed Doubles.
- Borg-Warner Trophy — Awarded to the Indianapolis 500 Champion.
- Harley J. Earl Trophy — Awarded to the Daytona 500 Champion.
- APBA Gold Cup — Awarded to the Detroit Gold Cup H1 Unlimited Champion.
- Challenge Cup, rugby league's oldest knock-out competition. Notable for the wide range of teams which start, some taken from amateur ranks, "developing nations" and university teams.
- Webb Ellis Cup – Awarded to rugby union's World Champion
- Bledisloe Cup – Awarded annually to the winner between New Zealand and Australia.
- Calcutta Cup – Awarded annually to the winner between England and Scotland in rugby union
- Cricket World Cup Trophy - Awarded to the Winners of the ICC Cricket World Cup.
- The Ashes Urn – widely considered to be presented as a trophy to the winning team of the biennial cricket test series between England and Australia. However, the urn itself was never a trophy and remains in the MCC Cricket Museum at Lord's Cricket Ground. Only from 1998–99 were the winners of the Ashes presented with a replica (not to scale) of the urn in Waterford Crystal.
Australian rules football
- McClelland Trophy – Awarded to the Australian Football League's Home & Away season / Minor Premiership champion.
- AFL Premiership Cup – Awarded to the Australian Football League's Premier/ Winner of the AFL Grand Final
- Claret Jug — Awarded to the winner of The Open Championship.
- Ryder Cup — Awarded to the winner of a biennial competition between Europe and the USA.
American and Canadian sports
- Heisman Trophy – Awarded to the NCAA's Most Valuable Player in College Football
- BCS Trophy – Awarded to College Football's National Champion
- Vanier Cup – Awarded to the Canadian Interuniversity Sport football champion
- Grey Cup – Awarded to the Canadian Football League's champion
- Calder Cup – Awarded to the American Hockey League's playoff champion
- Stanley Cup – Awarded to the National Hockey League's Stanley Cup Champion
- Commissioner's Trophy – Awarded to Major League Baseball's World Series Champion
- Vince Lombardi Trophy – Awarded to the National Football League's Super Bowl champion
- Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy – Awarded to the National Basketball Association's champion
- MLS Cup – Awarded to the Major League Soccer's champion
- Mann Cup – An Indoor Lacrosse trophy awarded to the senior men's lacrosse champions of Canada.
- Steinfeld Cup – Awarded to the Major League Lacrosse champion
- Champion's Cup – Awarded to the National Lacrosse League champion
- Kentucky Derby Trophy – Awarded to the winner of the Kentucky Derby.
- Woodlawn Vase – Awarded to the winner of the Preakness Stakes. Most valuable trophy in sports at $4,000,000+ US dollars. Designed by Tiffany & Co. in 1860
Many combat sports, such as boxing, mixed martial arts, and professional wrestling use championship belts as trophies; however, unlike most of the trophies mentioned above, a new one is not created every time a new champion is crowned; rather, the new champion takes the belt from the old one.
The United States military also issues a type of trophy which are known as "non-portable decorations". This indicates that the trophy carries the status of a military award, but is not meant to be worn on a uniform but rather is presented for static display. Such military trophies include athletic excellence awards, unit excellence awards, and superior service awards presented annually to the top service member of a command.
Many professional associations award trophies in recognition of outstanding work in their respective fields. Some examples of such awards include:
- Academy Award – Awarded by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for excellence in the Film Industry.
- Collier Trophy – Awarded by the US National Aeronautics Association for outstanding work in aviation engineering.
- Harmon Trophy – Awarded by the Clifford B. Harmon Trust for outstanding achievement in aviation or ballooning.
- Tony Award – Awarded by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League for excellence in Live Theater in New York.
- Emmy Award – Awarded by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences and National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences for excellence in the Television industry.
In hunting, although competition trophies like those mentioned above can be awarded, the word trophy more typically refers to an item made from the body of a killed animal and kept as a keepsake. See taxidermy.
- Acrylic trophy
- Championship belt
- Trophy wife
- PSN Trophies
- Achievement (video gaming)
- Eglinton Trophy
- Hales Trophy
- "War Trophies". About.com US Military. About.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "τρόπαιον". A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
- Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "τροπαῖος". A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
- Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "τροπή". A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
- Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "τρέπω". A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
- "trophy". Online Etymological Dictionary.
- "trophy". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "Trophy". How Products are made, volume 6.
- Kuper, Simon (2006-04-14). "Solid gold mystery awaits the final whistle". Financial Times.
- Lozano, Fernando (2010-05-03). "¿Sabías que el trofeo de la Copa Libertadores se hizo en el Perú?". ElComercio.com.pe.
- Podnieks, Andrew; Hockey Hall of Fame (2005). Silverware: Hockey Hall of Fame. HB Fenn and Company. ISBN 1-55168-296-6.
- Osborne, Robert (2003). 75 Years of the Oscar: The Official History of the Academy Awards. Abbeville Press. ISBN 0-7892-0787-7.
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