Tropical Storm Arlene (2011)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Tropical Storm Arlene
Tropical Storm (SSHWS/NWS)
Tropical Storm Arlene jun 30 2011 1945Z.jpg
Arlene after landfall on Mexico
Formed June 28, 2011
Dissipated July 1, 2011
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 65 mph (100 km/h)
Lowest pressure 993 mbar (hPa); 29.32 inHg
Fatalities 18 direct, 4 indirect
Damage $223.4 million (2011 USD)
Areas affected Central America, Mexico, Texas, Florida
Part of the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Storm Arlene, the first named storm of the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season, brought blistery conditions to much of eastern Mexico in late June to early July 2012. Arlene originated from an Atlantic tropical wave, which crossed the Yucatán Peninsula before emerging over warm waters in the Bay of Campeche. Despite moderate shear conditions, the disturbance strengthened and developed a surface circulation, prompting the National Hurricane Center to declare it a tropical storm on June 28. Arlene remained vigorous for most of its existence; the storm peaked in intensity on June 30, just before making landfall on the coast of Veracruz. Crossing the mountains of eastern Mexico, Arlene weakened to a tropical depression before dissipating early on July 1.

The precursor disturbance to Arlene brought significant rainfall to parts of Central America, killing three people and triggering widespread flooding and landslides. Throughout Mexico, prolonged rains from Arlene and subsequent flooding affected hundreds of homes and several roads, causing many residents to seek shelter. At the height of the storm, power was lost to 285,000 homes. At least 22 people in Mexico were confirmed dead due to Arlene. Elsewhere, rainfall from the storm alleviated ongoing drought conditions in southern Texas and Florida.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm according to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale

The origins of Tropical Storm Arlene can be traced to a distinct tropical wave, embedded within an area of deep atmospheric moisture, that emerged off the coast of Africa on June 13, 2011. The wave tracked westward across the Atlantic for several days, reaching the western Caribbean Sea in late June.[1][2] By June 24, it began interacting with the extension of a monsoon trough in the region, generating broad cyclonic flow and scattered convection in conjunction with an upper trough to its northwest. The amplified wave slowly proceeded west-northwestward along Central America, bringing heavy rainfall to the area.[3] Initially, the disturbance's development was impeded by the trough aloft and adjacent land, though the National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted favorable conditions for tropical cyclogenesis over the Bay of Campeche, coupled with abating wind shear.[4] On June 26, the disturbance moved inland over the Yucatán Peninsula, emerging into the bay the next day as it produced a surface low.[5][6] Despite moderate shear, a Hurricane Hunters flight into the system revealed that a closed wind circulation had formed at sea level. Thunderstorm activity became more concentrated, and the NHC initiated advisories on Tropical Storm Arlene at midnight June 29, after the cyclone's surface winds increased to 40 mph (65 km/h) about 280 mi (450 km) south-southeast of Tampico, Tamaulipas.[7]

The precursor low to Arlene organizing over the Bay of Campeche

Over the following hours, deep convection increased around the broad storm, though its circulation center continued to lack in organization.[8] Arlene curved to the west in response to a ridge of high pressure to its north and northwest. As the shear over the region further decreased, the large storm began to strengthen gradually, developing spiral convective bands closer to its center.[9] Although forecast models supported intensification to hurricane status, significant development was compromised by a lack of distinguishable central features.[10] On June 30, just before Arlene made landfall, Dvorak satellite estimates indicated the storm had reached a peak intensity of 65 mph (100 km/h) while accelerating off the coast of Veracruz. Arlene moved ashore near Cabo Rojo as a strong tropical storm by 0900 UTC, with the severest winds confined to the north of the center.[11]

Further inland, Arlene turned to the west-southwest along the building ridge. The storm decreased in strength gradually upon doing so; its mid- and low-level circulations became increasingly decoupled, with the latter becoming elongated and ill-defined.[12] Early on July 1, the NHC downgraded Arlene to a tropical depression, and the storm dissipated over the high terrain of the Sierra Madre Mountains shortly thereafter.[13][14] Arlene's remnants continued to produce heavy precipitation over central Mexico, and with high air pressures offshore a tight pressure gradient generated strong easterly breeze along the country's Pacific coastlines.[15]

Preparations and impact[edit]

Central America[edit]

Arlene making landfall as a strong tropical storm on June 30, as seen on infrared imagery

For several days, the precursor disturbance to Arlene produced significant precipitation along coastal Central America and the Yucatán Peninsula. Authorities issued a green alert for 13 departments in Honduras on the afternoon of June 24, which was to remain in effect for 72 hours.[16] Heavy rainfall and consequent flooding killed one person and collapsed a major bridge near the Goascorán River, leaving about 600 families isolated from surrounding areas.[17][18] Elsewhere in the country, a rockslide occurred along a road to San José de Colinas, and several rivers overflowed due to the effects of the storm.[19]

In neighboring El Salvador, maximum rainfall amounts totaled 8.34 in (212 mm). Two people drowned in San Miguel, while 25 others were displaced in La Unión due to the associated floods.[20][21] On June 26, the departments of La Unión, Ahuachapán, and Sonsonate were put under green alerts for a day after rains persisted over the region.[22] Scattered moderate showers also affected several parts of Nicaragua, triggering mudslides and overflowing a river in Cuapa. Along the riverside, 30 homes suffered inundations and 94 people evacuated the area.[23]

Mexico[edit]

Tropical Storm Arlene and its remnants produced hours of prolonged rainfall over much of northeastern and south-central Mexico. Widespread floods and landslides impacted multiple states, prompting evacuations and causing copious damage to property and infrastructure. At the height of the storm, about 285,000 households lost power throughout Mexico, though service was quickly restored to 210,000 homes.[24] Schools remained closed in the morning throughout Hidalgo, as well as in parts of San Luis Potosí, Guerrero, Puebla, and Oaxaca.[25] Throughout the country, Arlene resulted in 22 confirmed fatalities and left one person missing.[26]

Yucatán Peninsula[edit]

Across the Yucatán Peninsula, officials and emergency workers braced for heavy rains as the system developed.[27] Upon moving ashore near Quintana Roo, the system spread cloudiness and precipitation across much of the state, resulting in copious flooding. As a consequence, marine and fishing operations were suspended along coastlines, while many schools were closed in Benito Juárez on June 28.[28] Strong winds and scattered flooding damaged more than 450 homes in Chiapas; rainfall accumulations of 9.3 in (237 mm) were recorded in Tapachula and Soconusco over a 36-hour time span.[29] Officials ordered the evacuation of about 150 families after two rivers in the region reached dangerous water levels.[30] In addition, the Port of Chiapas halted operations for smaller vessels as a safety precaution, and 11 landslides were reported across the state.[29] In the wake of Arlene, one fatality was confirmed in Chiapas.[31]

La Huasteca Region[edit]

In response to Arlene's formation, the government of Mexico issued a tropical storm warning on June 29 for coastal areas from Barra de Nautla northward to Bahia Algodones.[32] Later that day, a hurricane watch was put into effect for the area extending from Tuxpan to La Cruz, after the storm showed signs of strengthening.[33] They were both extended shortly after, with the watch then reaching to Barra de Nautla and the warning further southward to Palma Sola, though the latter was simultaneously discontinued for areas to the north of La Pesca.[34] Prior to landfall, the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) activated a contingency plan for risk zones in the states of Veracruz and Tamaulipas. Emergency crews and medical teams were subsequently dispatched to the area in order to supply medical care to possible victims and manage power plant water pumps in case of flooding.[35] An alert was declared for Pemex—a major oil company within the storm's projected path—in consideration of possible impact to refineries and other facilities.[36]

Overcast conditions created by Arlene on moving ashore

Arlene brought strong thunderstorms and showers to much of the eastern Mexico, with gale-force winds reported along adjacent coastlines.[37] Upon landfall in Veracruz, Arlene uprooted trees and caused extensive flooding, prompting at least 1,786 people throughout the state to evacuate their homes.[38] Over 50 temporary shelters were made available in flood-prone areas across various municipalities.[39] Strong rains triggered a total 67 landslides in the state;[40] a landslide in Tlalnelhuayocan collapsed two houses, killing one inhabitant and injuring 10 others. Additionally, mudslides and rockfall uprooted trees and damaged eight cars in Banerilla, though no injuries were linked to the incident.[41] In Tihuatlán, a rescue worker was indirectly killed during the passage of the storm.[42] In total, Arlene affected 3,358 residences across 50 municipalities; up to 2,000 homes were damaged in El Higo. Localized rainfall accumulations exceeding 3.9 in (100 mm) brought on the overflow of some 28 rivers, as well as the isolation of 116 communities statewide.[43] Other effects in Veracruz included considerable infrastructural failure, localized land subsidence, and three damaged schools in Coacoatzintla.[40] Road reconstruction costs totaled at least $126 million in Mexican Currency (US$10.2 million).[44] In response to the devastation, the government declared a state of emergency for 65 percent of the state; by July 5, at least 62 municipalities remained under alert.[45]

Authorities in Tamaulipas prompted the preparation of five shelters, as well as the mobilization of 10 emergency teams to evacuate up to 20,000 people in anticipation of adverse weather conditions.[46] Extensive floods forced some 400 families to evacuate throughout the state; 70 trapped families in El Mante were rescued from their flooded homes.[42] At the height of the storm, high-voltage electrocutions caused two deaths in the municipalities of Tampico and Reynosa, while critically injuring two workers in Matamoros.[47][48] By July 4, two additional deaths were reported in the state, though their causes remain unspecified.[49] Property damage was reported to approximately 40,000 homes, according to preliminary estimates.[24] A state of emergency was declared in the municipalities of Tampico, Ciudad Madero, Altamira, and González in the wake of the storm.[50] Additionally, broken drains and sewers increased the risk of cholera through contaminated water.[51] Damage from the storm surmounted $67 million in Mexican Currency (US$5.8 million) in Tamaulipas.[52]

Further inland, authorities in Hidalgo activated 250 shelters and dispatched emergency workers as a safety measure. About 100 families required evacuation in the municipalities of Orizatlán and Tlanchinol as a consequence of the storm. Statewide, more than 80 landslides occurred due to the rains;[53] a landslide in Jacala resulted in at least two deaths. Swollen rivers in El Arenal and Huejutla drowned two people, who were later confirmed dead.[54] In the wake of the disaster, the government of Hidalgo allocated a total Mex$17 million (US$1.45 million) in order to initiate rehabilitation work.[55] However, total damage from the storm reached $2.6 billion in Mexican Currency (US$207.4 million) across the state.[56] In San Luis Potosí, Arlene claimed the lives of five people, of which two drowned.[57] Damaging landslides left dozens of communities isolated, and more than 600 residents evacuated flooded areas in particular in Ciudad Valles, Tamazunchale, El Naranjo, and Xilitla.[58][57]

Elsewhere[edit]

In Puebla, downpours triggered landslides that affected two roads, cutting them off to traffic.[59] The storm felled trees that struck one home in the municipality of Zihuateutla, killing its inhabitant.[60] In Tlacotepec, a girl was left missing after falling into a rushing stream;[59] by July 4, officials confirmed she had drowned.[58] After hours of prolonged rainfall, concerns arose over the potential risk of a dam in the municipality of Tlatlauquitepec.[61] Three houses sustained damage in Eloxochitlán as a consequence of excess soil saturation, with another reportedly collapsing in Atempan.[61] Elsewhere, mucky flood waters of about 1.6 ft (0.5 m) in height affected a local school building when an adjacent river overflowed.[59]

At the risk of flash flooding, public storm shelters were made available in parts of Oaxaca. Rainfall inflicted damage to multiple roads and collapsed one bridge; communication was subsequently lost with over 12,000 people from MixeZapotec communities.[62] The storm's remnants caused a landslide that overturned a taxi, killing one of its nine passengers.[58] Post-storm conditions in Michoacán—which was still recovering from the impact of Pacific Hurricane Beatriz—worsened significantly; at least 1,600 homes sustained additional damage, with cut-off roads and severed bridges secluding multiple coastal communities in Aquila.[63] In Guerrero, three people were killed in traffic accidents due to the adverse weather.[60] Torrential rainfall throughout the state left one person missing and flooded 210 homes, with uprooted trees and rockfall reported along mountainous areas.[64][65]

United States[edit]

In Florida, moisture tracing behind Arlene produced showers, alleviating ongoing extreme drought conditions in the state.[66] The National Weather Service warned for the potential of flooding rains in the drought-stricken region of southern Texas. Officials in Cameron County ordered the preparation of sandbags, as well as the inspection of water pumps and vehicles to deal with floodwaters.[67] In Hidalgo County, the storm spawned a weak tornado that damaged roofs, toppled vehicles, and injured one person prior to moving into Mexico.[68]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wallice, Patricia (2011-06-24). "Tropical Weather Discussion". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  2. ^ Beven, John. Tropical Storm Arlene Tropical Cyclone Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL012011_Arlene.pdf. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
  3. ^ Garcia, Felix (2011-06-24). "Tropical Weather Discussion". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  4. ^ Stewart, Stacy (2011-06-26). "Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-26. 
  5. ^ Walton, Corey (2011-06-26). "Tropical Weather Discussion". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-28. 
  6. ^ Walton, Corey (2011-06-27). "Tropical Weather Discussion". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-28. 
  7. ^ Brown, Richard/Kimberlain, Todd (2011-06-29). "Tropical Storm Arlene Discussion Number One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-29. 
  8. ^ Blake, Eric/Brennan, Michael (2011-06-29). "Tropical Storm Arlene Discussion Number Three". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-29. 
  9. ^ Pasch, Richard/Beven, Jack (2011-06-29). "Tropical Storm Arlene Discussion Number Four". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-29. 
  10. ^ Pasch, Richard (2011-06-29). "Tropical Storm Arlene Discussion Number Five". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  11. ^ Blake, Eric/Kimberlain, Todd (2011-06-30). "Tropical Storm Arlene Discussion Number Seven". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  12. ^ Beven, Jack (2011-06-30). "Tropical Storm Arlene Discussion Number Nine". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  13. ^ Cangialosi, John/Brown, Dan (2011-07-01). "Tropical Depression Arlene Advisory Nine A". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 
  14. ^ Cangialosi, John/Brown, Dan (2011-06-30). "Remnants of Arlene Discussion Number Ten". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  15. ^ Cobb, Hugh (2011-07-02). "Tropical Weather Discussion". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  16. ^ (Spanish) Redacciónweb (2011-06-25). "Pronostican lluvias para este fin de semana". La Prensa. Organización Publicitaria, S.A. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  17. ^ (Spanish) EFE (2011-06-26). "Autoridades rectifican y dicen que solo hay un muerto por lluvias en Honduras". Google Hosted News. Retrieved 2011-06-29. 
  18. ^ (Spanish) Redacción (2011-06-28). "Unos 20 mil afectados por lluvias en la zona sur". La Prensa. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  19. ^ (Spanish) "Copeco reporta cinco muertos por lluvias". La Prensa. Organización Publicitaria, S.A. 2011-06-26. Retrieved 2011-06-26. 
  20. ^ (Spanish) EFE (2011-06-25). "Al menos 2 muertos y daños en puente entre El Salvador y Guatemala por lluvia". Terra Networks. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  21. ^ (Spanish) Lazo, Flor (2011-06-26). "Al menos 24 evacuados en La Unión por lluvias". La Prensa Gráfica. Grupo Dutriz. Retrieved 2011-06-27. 
  22. ^ (Spanish) EFE (2011-06-27). "Protección Civil de El Salvador retira alerta verde por lluvias". Terra Networks. Retrieved 2011-06-27. 
  23. ^ (Spanish) Ruiz, Waldir (2011-06-26). "Ineter: Lluvias por 48 horas más". El Nuevo Diario. Retrieved 2011-06-26. 
  24. ^ a b (Spanish) Staff writer (2011-07-01). "Tres muertos y pueblos aislados por "Arlene"". El Universal. Compañía Periodística Nacional. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  25. ^ (Spanish) El Universal (2011-07-01). "Deja "Arlene" tres muertos". Correo de Guanajuato. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 
  26. ^ Levy, Jacquie (2011-07-05). "Mexico raises death toll to 22 people from Tropical Storm Arlene". ABC 13 action news. Associated Press. Retrieved 2012-11-23. 
  27. ^ (Spanish) Barboza S., Roberto (2011-06-26). "Alertan por lluvias en límites de Chiapas y Tabasco". El Universal. Compañía Periodística Nacional. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  28. ^ (Spanish) Claves (2011-06-28). "Activan plan por precipitaciones en Quintana Roo". Milenio. Grupo Multimedios. Retrieved 2011-07-03. 
  29. ^ a b (Spanish) Romero, Gaspar (2011-06-28). "Lluvias en Chiapas dejan derrumbes en carreteras y viviendas dañadas". Excélsior. Grupo Imagen Multimedia. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  30. ^ (Spanish) igq (2011-06-29). "Desolajan a 150 familias en Chiapas ante desborde ríos". Grupo Fórmula. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 
  31. ^ (Spanish) EFE (2011-07-05). "La tormenta "Arlene" causó 22 muertos a su paso por México". Google Hosted News. Retrieved 2011-07-05. 
  32. ^ Brown, Richard/Kimberlain, Todd (2011-06-29). "Tropical Storm Arlene Advisory Number One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-29. 
  33. ^ Pasch, Richard/Beven, Jack (2011-06-29). "Tropical Storm Arlene Advisory Number Four". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-29. 
  34. ^ Pasch, Richard/Beven, Jack (2011-06-29). "Tropical Storm Arlene Advisory Number Four A". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-06-29. 
  35. ^ (Spanish) Nasrallah, Jesús N. (2011-06-29). "Activa IMSS plan de contingencia por impacto de Tormenta "Arlene"". Milenio. Grupo Multimedios. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 
  36. ^ Comlay, Elinor (2011-06-29). "Arlene to drench large parts of central Mexico". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-05. 
  37. ^ (Spanish) Román, Martin (2011-06-30). "Tormenta "Arlene" toca territorio mexicano". La Gran Época. The Epoch Times. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  38. ^ (Spanish) Hernández, Evelyn (2011-06-30). "Mil 786 evacuados y 13 municipios afectados por la tormenta Arlene en Veracruz". Grupo Fórmula. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 
  39. ^ (Spanish) Abundis, Aristeo (2011-06-29). "Activan cincuenta albergues en municipios del norte de Veracruz". Milenio. Grupo Multimedios. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 
  40. ^ a b (Spanish) Notimex (2011-07-04). "Más de 3 mil viviendas afectadas en Veracruz por Arlene". Milenio. Grupo Multimedios. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  41. ^ (Spanish) Impreso DF & Estados (2011-07-03). "Alud sepulta dos casas en Veracruz; un muerto". Milenio. Grupo Multimedios. Retrieved 2011-07-03. 
  42. ^ a b (Spanish) Staff writer (2011-07-02). "Miles de damnificados y 6 muertos por "Arlene"". El Universal. Compañía Periodística Nacional. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  43. ^ (Spanish) Notimex (2011-07-04). "Veracruz reporta 3 mil casas afectadas por Arlene". El Universal. Compañía Periodística Nacional. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  44. ^ (Spanish) García, Máxima (2011-08-19). "Pide SCT 126 mdp para carreteras en Veracruz". Imagen del Golfo. Agencia Imagen del Golfo. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  45. ^ (Spanish)Notimex (2011-07-12). "El 65% de Veracruz esta en emergencia por causa de las lluvias". CNN México. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  46. ^ (Spanish) Abundis, Aristeo (2011-06-29). "Preparados en sur de Tamaulipas para posibles evacuaciones". Milenio. Grupo Multimedios. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 
  47. ^ EFE (2011-07-01). "T.S. Arlene blamed for 1 death in Mexico". Fox News Latino. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 
  48. ^ (Spanish) El Universal (2011-06-30). ""Arlene" deja dos muertos en Tamaulipas". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  49. ^ (Spanish) Staff writer (2011-07-05). "Tamaulipas reporta dos muertos más por las lluvias". El Universal. Compañía Periodística Nacional. Retrieved 2011-07-05. 
  50. ^ (Spanish) Orozco, Janice/Azuara, Patricia/Meza, Anahy (2011-07-08). "Declaran emergencia en cuatro municipios". Milenio. Grupo Multimedios. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  51. ^ (Spanish) Martínez, Víctor H. G. (2011-07-18). "Alerta por cólera en el sur de Tamaulipas". Hoy Tamaulipas. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  52. ^ Grimaldo, Roberto A. (2011-07-21). "Daños por Arlene ascienden a 67 mdp en Tamaulipas". El Universal. Compañía Periodística Nacional. Retrieved 2011-07-24. 
  53. ^ (Spanish) Notimex (2011-06-30). "Evacuan a 100 familias en dos municipios de Hidalgo". Diario Provincia. Operadora y Editora del Bajío S.A. de C.V. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 
  54. ^ (Spanish) Reforma (2011-07-01). "Suman cuatro muertos por lluvias en Hidalgo". Terra Networks. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  55. ^ (Spanish) Quintana, Alberto (2011-07-13). "Aplica gobierno de Hidalgo 17 mdp para aliviar daños en municipios". La Crónica de Hoy. La Crónica de Hoy. Retrieved 2011-07-14. 
  56. ^ (Spanish) Daniel Pérez González (August 5, 2011). "Para reparar daños por Arlene se requieren de 2 mil 360 millones de pesos del Fonden". El Visto Bueno. Retrieved August 14, 2011. 
  57. ^ a b (Spanish) Vázquez, Antonio G. (2011-07-04). "Aumenta a cinco el número de muertos por el paso de Arlene en SLP". Milenio. Grupo Multimedios. Retrieved 2011-07-05. 
  58. ^ a b c (Spanish) Redacción (2011-07-04). "Suman 20 muertos por lluvias en el país". Excélsior. Grupo Imagen Multimedia. Retrieved 2011-07-05. 
  59. ^ a b c (Spanish) Corona, Fernando P. (2011-06-29). "Desaparece niña por tormenta 'Arlene' en Puebla". Excélsior. Grupo Imagen Multimedia. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  60. ^ a b (Spanish) Staff writer (2011-07-03). "Alud sepulta casas; van 17 muertos por lluvias". El Universal. Compañía Periodística Nacional. Retrieved 2011-07-03. 
  61. ^ a b (Spanish) Rangel, Xóchitl (2011-06-29). "Arlene deja deslaves y daños en casas de Puebla". El Universal. Compañía Periodística Nacional. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  62. ^ (Spanish) Rodríguez, Oscar (2011-06-29). "Tormenta "Arlene" afecta a 10 municipios de Oaxaca". Milenio. Grupo Multimedios. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  63. ^ (Spanish) Tinoco, Miguel G. (2011-07-04). "Michoacan reporta mil 600 casas con danos por lluvias". Excélsior. Grupo Imagen Multimedia. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  64. ^ (Spanish) Maciel, Laura R. (2011-07-01). "La tormenta 'Arlene' deja inundaciones y un desaparecido en Acapulco". CNN México. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 
  65. ^ (Spanish) Cervantes, Juan (2011-07-08). "Lluvias afectaron 210 casas en Guerrero". El Universal. Compañía Periodística Nacional. Retrieved 2011-07-08. 
  66. ^ Morgan, Curtis (2011-06-29). "Tropical Storm Arlene brings much-needed rain to South Florida". The Miami Herald. The McClatchy Company. Retrieved 2011-06-29. 
  67. ^ Martinez, Laura B. (2011-06-28). "Brownsville, Cameron County prepares for rain from Tropical Storm Arlene". The Brownsville Herald. Freedom Communications. Retrieved 2011-06-29. 
  68. ^ Associated Press (2011-06-30). "Damaging storms strike East, South Texas". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 

External links[edit]