Tropical Storm Henri (2003)

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Tropical Storm Henri
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Henri (2003).jpg
Tropical Storm Henri near peak intensity
Formed September 3, 2003
Dissipated September 8, 2003
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:
60 mph (95 km/h)
Lowest pressure 997 mbar (hPa); 29.44 inHg
Fatalities None reported
Damage $19.6 million (2003 USD)
Areas affected Florida, Delaware, Pennsylvania
Part of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Storm Henri was weak a tropical storm that formed in the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. The eighth storm of the season, Henri was one of six tropical cyclones to hit the United States in the year. Henri formed from a tropical wave in the Gulf of Mexico in early September, and crossed over Florida as a tropical depression. Its remnants later moved into the Mid-Atlantic before dissipating completely.

Henri caused little damage as a tropical cyclone. In Florida, it dropped heavy rainfall, though damage was limited to minor flooding damage. In Delaware and Pennsylvania, damage was greater, where heavy rainfall damaged hundreds of houses and businesses. The resulting floods in Delaware were described as a 1 in 500 year event. The total damage by Henri along its path amounted to $19.6 million (2003 USD, $21.5 million 2006 USD), but no deaths were reported.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map showing the sequential path of the storm; the colored points indicate the storm's position and intensity at six-hour intervals.

On August 22, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa, and it moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea without developing significantly. On September 1 the wave axis entered the Gulf of Mexico, and upon doing so convection steadily organized around a low-level center of circulation. The system moved northward and developed into Tropical Depression Twelve on September 3 while located about 300 miles (480 kilometers) west of Tampa, Florida. Embedded within a slow mid-latitude trough, the depression moved eastward and strengthened into Tropical Storm Henri on September 5.[1]

Remnants of Henri making landfall on North Carolina

Despite strong southwesterly vertical shear, Henri continued intensifying while moving eastward, and reached a peak strength of 60 mph (95 km/h) later on September 5. Shortly thereafter, though, the shear greatly weakened the storm, and it was downgraded to a tropical depression. Henri was not able to recover its intensity, and made landfall near Clearwater, Florida on September 6 as a 35 mph (55 km/h) tropical depression, and quickly crossed the state as it accelerated to the northeast.[1] Despite initial predictions of re-intensification over open waters due to potentially lower shear,[2] Henri failed to re-strengthen and degenerated into a remnant low pressure area on September 8 off the coast of North Carolina.[1]

The broad and disorganized remnant low remained nearly stationary due to a ridge of high pressure to its north.[1] Residual convection within the remnants of Henri remained disorganized, but forecasters kept watch for the potential for redevelopment.[3] However, it moved inland near Cape Hatteras on September 12 without reorganizing.[4] The remnants continued to the north and dissipated on September 17 over New England.[5]

Preparations[edit]

The National Hurricane Center issued a Tropical Storm Warning from Englewood to Indian Pass, Florida while Henri was a tropical depression; however, warnings were discontinued by the time Henri made landfall.[1] Flood warnings were issued across the state prior to the storm making landfall, with predictions of 5 to 10 inches (125 – 255 mm) of rainfall.[6] As a result of the storm's approach, twelve shelters were placed on standby. Similarly, the Hurricane Shelter Information Hotline was placed on standby and ready to be activated within 10 minutes.[7] Levy County officials declared a state of emergency. There, sand bags and sand were sent to Cedar Key, Yankeetown, and Inglis in anticipation for storm surge and flooding.[8]

Impact[edit]

Henri dropped heavy rainfall along its path, with the worst of the flooding occurring in Delaware. The storm caused $19.6 million in damage (2003 USD), primarily in Delaware.

Florida, Bahamas, and Bermuda[edit]

Prior to making landfall, the storm produced strong waves on the Florida west coast.[6] Following a summer of tropical moisture in Florida, Henri brought more heavy rainfall to the saturated state,[9] peaking at 9.09 in (230 mm) in Hialeah in the southeast portion of the state. Two other areas experienced over 7 in (180 mm), though most areas received only light rainfall.[5] In Hernando County, a stationary thunderstorm dropped over 5 in (125 mm) of rain in around an hour. It caused a rapid flooding of roads, though quickly retreated. Damage was minor, due to lack of many homes in the area.[10] A feeder band in Charlotte County dropped 7 in (180 mm) of rain in three hours, flooding numerous streets and homes.[11] Throughout Florida, damage was minimal, and there were no deaths. However, lightning from a feeder band injured a man in Lee County, while an indirect injury occurred from a car crash due to hydroplaning.[1]

In the Bahamas, outer rainbands from Henri dropped around 1 inch (25 mm) of rain. Winds in the archipelago gusted to 32 mph (51 km/h).[12] Just days after Hurricane Fabian struck Bermuda, moisture from Henri brought thunderstorms and heavy rainfall and thunderstorms totaling to 2.44 inches (62 mm) at the airport.[13] This hindered cleanup efforts, though caused no known damage.[14]

Mid-Atlantic[edit]

In North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland, rainfall was generally light, with the exception of a few areas receiving over 3 inches (75 mm).[5] Henri produced greater amounts of rain in Delaware and Pennsylvania, with a peak of 9.02 in (229 mm) in Hockessin.[15] In Downingtown, Pennsylvania, over eight inches (203 mm) of rain fell in around six hours, while Doppler Radar estimated that Kennett Square received over 10 inches (255 mm) in a five hour period. The heavy rainfall led to record discharge rates along the Red Clay Creek, which also had a record crest peaking at just below 26 feet (8 m). Parts of the creek saw a 500-year flood, which has a 0.2% chance of occurring in any given year.[16] Numerous rivers in southeastern Pennsylvania also crested above their flood stage.[17]

In Delaware, the flooding damaged numerous houses, including 194 in the Glenville area. The rapid flooding trapped numerous people in their cars and homes, forcing at least one rescue by helicopter. Those people were evacuated to nearby schools. The severe flooding washed out most of a bridge in Hockessin[15] and destroyed 6 Wilmington & Western Railroad bridges,[18] causing about $5 million (2003 USD, $5.5 million 2006 USD) in damage.[19] The railroad bridges were still being rebuilt as of 2006.[20] Greenbank Mill, a historic gristmill complex, saw $450,000 in damage.[21] Damage in Delaware totaled to $16.1 million (2003 USD, $17.5 million 2006 USD).[15]

Flash flooding in Pennsylvania resulted in 2,600 emergency 911 calls and around 100 rescues for cars or houses. The flooding destroyed 12 homes, and damaged 336, over half of them severely. Wet soil downed trees and power lines, causing power outages to 109,000 PECO Energy customers. High floodwaters damaged 22 bridges and closed 2 indefinitely,[17] while the flooding closed several roads, including a portion of U.S. Highway 1 in Chadds Ford.[22] Damage in Pennsylvania totaled to $3.5 million (2003 USD, $3.8 million 2006 USD).[17] The impacts were severely compounded the following week by Hurricane Isabel across the region.

Aftermath[edit]

On September 23, just days after the storm moved through, President George W. Bush declared New Castle County, Delaware as a disaster area following the effects of Henri and later Hurricane Isabel. The declaration designated the affected citizens eligible for grants to pay for temporary housing, house repairs, and serious disaster-related expenses. The declaration also allowed for federal funding for 75% of the repair cost for replacing public facilities.[23] By two months after the storm, 659 residents had applied for disaster aid through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), totaling to just over $1 million (2003 USD, $1.1 million 2006 USD). 141 small businesses applied for loans, totaling to around $2.5 million (2003 USD, $2.75 million 2006 USD). In addition, FEMA received 183 applications for public assistance, which would be used for rebuilding public roads and buildings.[24] Over twenty volunteer organizations met to establish a long-term committee to find resources for disaster recovery needs. One goal sought by the committee was to find a permanent housing solution for every one who was displaced from their houses from the storms. Volunteers also helped remove ruined appliances and furniture to local landfills, totaling to more than 300 tons.[25] State and county governments in Delaware purchased 171 homes following the damage in the Glenville area, the highest number of houses purchased in the state due to storm damage.[26] The house purchasing was done to mitigate the flood damage by restoring the area as a wetland.[27]

On September 26, President Bush also declared Chester County, Pennsylvania as a disaster area following the damage of Henri, Tropical Storm Isabel, and severe flooding unrelated to either tropical cyclone.[28] By a month after the declaration, 342 homeowners and business owners applied for disaster aid, totaling to around $600,000 (2003 USD, $660,000 2006 USD).[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Daniel P. Brown and Miles Lawrence (2003). "Tropical Storm Henri Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  2. ^ James L. Franklin (2003). "Tropical Depression Henri Discussion 13". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  3. ^ James L. Franklin (2003). "Tropical Weather Outlook for September 11, 2003". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  4. ^ James L. Franklin (2003). "Tropical Weather Outlook for September 12, 2003". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  5. ^ a b c David Roth (2006). "Rainfall information on Tropical Storm Henri". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  6. ^ a b GoFlorida (2003). "Tropical Storm Henri". Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  7. ^ Capital Area Chapter of the American Red Cross (2003). "Situation Report" (PDF). Archived from the original on June 26, 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  8. ^ Florida State Emergency Response Team (2001). "Situation Report" (PDF). Archived from the original on June 26, 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  9. ^ State of Florida Department of Community Affairs (2003). "2003 Hurricane Season Summary" (PDF). Archived from the original on December 8, 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  10. ^ National Climatic Data Center (2003). "Event Report for Florida". Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  11. ^ National Climatic Data Center (2003). "Event Report for Florida (2)". Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  12. ^ Stormcarib.com (2003). "Unofficial Reports from the Bahamas". Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  13. ^ Bermuda Weather Service (2003). "Weather Summary for September 2003". Retrieved 2006-10-17. 
  14. ^ World Meteorological Organization RA IV Hurricane Committee (2004). "Final Report of the Twenty-Sixth Session" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-18. 
  15. ^ a b c National Climatic Data Center (2003). "Event Report for Delaware". Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  16. ^ Stefanie Baxter (2003). "Henri Visits Delaware" (PDF). Delaware Geological Survey. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  17. ^ a b c National Climatic Data Center (2003). "Event Report for Pennsylvania". Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  18. ^ Wilmington & Western Railroad (2006). "Rebuilding after Henri". Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  19. ^ Gary Gallaher (2003). "Isabel, Henri, and Grace: Three Names to Remember". Atlantic Coast Observer Network. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  20. ^ Wilmington & Western Railroad (2006). "News Story". Archived from the original on 2006-06-23. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  21. ^ Tony Shahan (2003). "Red Clay Creek Flood, 9/15/03". Retrieved 2006-06-15. 
  22. ^ National Climatic Data Center (2003). "Event Report for Pennsylvania". Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  23. ^ Federal Emergency Management Agency (2003). "Federal Disaster Funds Authorized To Aid Delaware Recovery From Tropical Storm Henri". Retrieved 2006-06-13. 
  24. ^ FEMA (2003). "Disaster Victims Receive Over $3.5 Million In Assistance So Far". Retrieved 2006-06-13. 
  25. ^ FEMA (2003). "Community Momentum Builds To Help Storm Victims". Retrieved 2006-06-13. 
  26. ^ New Castle County Emergency Management (2006). "Hurricanes". Archived from the original on June 27, 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  27. ^ Gerald J. Kauffman (2003). "Henri Visits Delaware: September 15, 2003 Tropical Storm Floods in Red Clay Creek Watershed". Delaware Water Resources Center. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  28. ^ FEMA (2003). "Federal Disaster Aid Ordered For Pennsylvania Storms". Retrieved 2006-06-13. 
  29. ^ FEMA (2003). "Disaster Aid Surpasses Half Million Dollars". Retrieved 2006-06-13.