Tropical monsoon climate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Worldwide zones of tropical monsoon climate (Am).

Tropical monsoon climate, occasionally also known as a tropical wet climate or tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate in climate classification, is a relatively rare type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am".

Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C in every month of the year and feature wet and dry seasons, as Tropical savanna climates do. Unlike tropical savanna climates however, a tropical monsoon climate's driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation but more than (100 − [total annual precipitation {mm}/25]). Also a tropical monsoon climate tends to see less variance in temperatures during the course of the year than a tropical savanna climate. This climate has a driest month which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator.[1]

Versions[edit]

There are generally two versions of a tropical monsoon climate:

  • The first version of the tropical monsoon climate features wet and dry seasons, with less pronounced dry seasons. Regions with this variation of the tropical monsoon climate typically sees copious amounts of rain during the wet season(s), usually in the form of frequent thunderstorms. However, unlike most tropical savanna climates, a sizeable amount of precipitation also falls during the dry season(s). In essence, this version of the tropical monsoon climate generally has less pronounced dry seasons than tropical savanna climates.
  • The second version of the tropical monsoon climate features wet and dry seasons, with extraordinarily rainy wet seasons and pronounced dry seasons. This variation features pronounced dry seasons similar in length and character to dry seasons observed in tropical savanna climates. However, this is followed by a sustained period (or sustained periods) of extraordinary rainfall. In some instances, up to (and sometimes in excess of) 1,000 mm of precipitation is observed per month for two or more consecutive months. Tropical savanna climates generally do not see this level of sustained rainfall.

Distribution[edit]

Tropical monsoon climates are most commonly found in South and Central America. However, there are sections of South Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa (particularly West and Central Africa), the Caribbean, and North America that also features this .

Factors[edit]

The major controlling factor over a tropical monsoon climate is its relationship to the monsoon circulation. The monsoon is a seasonal change in wind direction. In Asia, during the summer (or high-sun season) there is an onshore flow of air (air moving from ocean towards land). In the “winter” (or low-sun season) an offshore air flow (air moving from land toward water) is prevalent. The change in direction is due to the difference in the way water and land heat.

Changing pressure patterns that affect the seasonality of precipitation also occur in Africa though it generally differs from the way it operates in Asia. During the high-sun season, the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) induces rain. During the low-sun season, the subtropical high creates dry conditions.[2] The monsoon climates of Africa, and the Americas for that matter, are typically located along tradewind coasts.

Charts of selected cities[edit]

Miami
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
51
 
24
15
 
 
53
 
25
16
 
 
61
 
26
18
 
 
72
 
28
20
 
 
158
 
30
22
 
 
237
 
31
24
 
 
145
 
32
25
 
 
193
 
32
25
 
 
194
 
31
24
 
 
143
 
29
22
 
 
68
 
27
19
 
 
47
 
25
16
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO
Chittagong
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
5
 
26
13
 
 
28
 
28
15
 
 
64
 
31
19
 
 
150
 
32
23
 
 
264
 
32
24
 
 
533
 
31
25
 
 
597
 
30
25
 
 
518
 
30
24
 
 
320
 
31
24
 
 
180
 
31
23
 
 
56
 
29
18
 
 
15
 
26
14
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: BBC [2]
Abidjan
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
41
 
31
23
 
 
53
 
32
24
 
 
99
 
32
24
 
 
125
 
32
24
 
 
361
 
31
24
 
 
495
 
29
23
 
 
213
 
28
23
 
 
53
 
28
22
 
 
71
 
28
23
 
 
168
 
29
23
 
 
201
 
31
23
 
 
79
 
31
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [3]
Macapá
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
300
 
30
23
 
 
347
 
29
23
 
 
407
 
29
23
 
 
384
 
30
24
 
 
352
 
30
24
 
 
220
 
30
23
 
 
185
 
31
23
 
 
98
 
32
23
 
 
43
 
32
23
 
 
36
 
33
24
 
 
58
 
32
24
 
 
143
 
31
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [4] [5]
Conakry
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
1
 
32
19
 
 
1
 
33
20
 
 
3
 
33
21
 
 
22
 
34
22
 
 
137
 
33
21
 
 
396
 
32
20
 
 
1130
 
30
20
 
 
1104
 
30
21
 
 
617
 
31
21
 
 
295
 
31
20
 
 
70
 
32
21
 
 
8
 
32
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types: The Köppen System". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pg. 208. ISBN 0-13-020263-0
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "Climatological Normals of Conakry". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2014-02-12.