Tropidoclonion

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Tropidoclonion
Tropidoclonion lineatum texanum.jpg
Texas lined snake
Tropidoclonion lineatum texanum
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Colubridae
Subfamily: Natricinae
Genus: Tropidoclonion
Species: T. lineatum
Binomial name
Tropidoclonion lineatum
(Hallowell, 1856)
Synonyms
  • Microps lineatus Hallowell, 1856
  • Storeria lineata Cope, 1860[1]
  • Ischnognathus lineatus
    Boulenger, 1893[2]
  • Tropidoclonium lineatum
    — Cope, 1900
  • Tropidoclonion lineatum
    Stejneger & Barbour, 1917[1]

Tropidoclonion is a genus of small colubrid snakes, commonly known as lined snakes, which are endemic to North America. The single species in the genus, Tropidoclonion lineatum, has four subspecies.

Subspecies[edit]

Geographic range[edit]

Lined snakes are found throughout the central United States from Illinois to Texas. They prefer grassland areas with soft, moist soils.

Description[edit]

Lined snakes are olive green to brown with a distinctive tan or yellow stripe down the back from head to tail. They have similar stripes down each side on scale rows 2 and 3.[3] On the belly, they have a double row of clean-cut black half-moon spots running down the middle.[4] They have narrow heads and small eyes.

Adult size is typically less than 35 cm (14 inches) in total length. However, maximum recorded total length is 53 cm (21 in).[5]

The keeled dorsal scales are arranged in 19 rows at midbody. There are only 5 or 6 upper labials.[5]

Behavior[edit]

Lined snakes are semifossorial, spending most of their time hiding under rocks, leaf litter, logs, or buried in the soil. The majority of their diets consist of earthworms.

Reproduction[edit]

They are ovoviviparous, the young being born in August. The average brood is seven or eight.[6] The newborn juveniles are 10-12 cm (4-4¾ in.) long at birth.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Stejneger, L., and T. Barbour 1917. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 125 pp. (Tropidoclonion lineatum, pp. 99-100.)
  2. ^ Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume I., Containing the Families...Colubridæ Aglyphæ, part. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xiii + 448 pp. + Plates I.- XXVIII. (Ischnognathus lineatus, pp. 289-290.)
  3. ^ Schmidt, K.P. and D.D. Davis. 1941. Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada. G.P. Putnam's Son's. New York. 365 pp. (Tropidoclonion lineatum, pp. 257-259, Figure 83 + Plate 29, Top, on p. 349.)
  4. ^ a b Conant, R. 1975. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin. Boston. xviii + 429 pp. ISBN 0-395-19979-4 (hardcover), ISBN 0-395-19977-8 (paperback). (Tropidoclonion lineatum, pp. 166-167 + Plate 24 + Map 123.)
  5. ^ a b Smith, H.M., and E.D. Brodie, Jr. 1982. Reptiles of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Golden Press. New York. 240 pp. ISBN 0-307-13666-3 (paperback). (Tropidoclonion lineatum, pp. 152-153.)
  6. ^ Force, E.R. 1931. Habits and Birth of the Lined Snake, Tropidoclonion lineatum (Hallowell). Copeia 1931: 51-53.

Further reading[edit]

  • Conant, R., and W. Bridges. 1939. What Snake Is That? A Field Guide to the Snakes of the United States East of the Rocky Mountains. D. Appleton-Century. New York and London. Frontispiece map + viii + 163 pp. + Plates A-C, 1-32. (Tropidoclonion lineatum, pp. 114-115 + Plate 21, Figure 63.)
  • Hallowell, E. 1856. Notice of a Collection of Reptiles from Kansas and Nebraska, presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences, by Dr. Hammond, U. S. A. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8: 238-253. (Genus Microps, p. 240; and species Microps lineatus, p. 241.)
  • Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin. Boston and New York. xiii + 533 pp. ISBN 0-395-98272-3 (paperback). (Tropidoclonion lineatum, p. 391 + Plate 50 + Map 168.)
  • Wright, A.H., and A.A. Wright. 1957. Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. Comstock. Ithaca and London. 1,105 pp. (in 2 volumes) (Genus Tropidoclonion p. 879 + Figure 20, a-c, on p. 71; and species Tropidoclonion lineatum, pp. 879-884, Figure 252., Map 62.)
  • Zim, H.S., and H.M. Smith. 1956. Reptiles and Amphibians: A Guide to Familiar American Species: A Golden Nature Guide. Simon and Schuster. New York. 160 pp. ("Lined Snake", pp. 106, 156.)

External links[edit]