|Location||Gulf St Vincent|
Troubridge Island Lighthouse
|Location||Troubridge Island, South Australia|
|Year first lit||1856.|
|Tower shape||round tower|
|Markings / pattern||painted with broad red and white horizontal bands|
|Height||24 metres (79 ft)|
Troubridge Island is a small sandy island lying about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) east-southeast of Edithburgh on the Yorke Peninsula at the south-western end of Gulf St Vincent, South Australia. It is important as a seabird colony site.
Troubridge is a low island with a maximum height of about 5 m above sea level. Its land area is only about 3 ha at high tide but expands to about 8 ha of exposed sand flats at low tide. Apart from a disused lighthouse with two associated cottages used for tourist accommodation, the island is designated as a conservation park known as the Troubridge Island Conservation Park. Access is only by permit or with an approved commercial tour operator.
Flora and fauna
Most of the 31 plant species recorded from the island are introduced. The vegetation consists of low shrubland dominated by nitre bush, grey saltbush and African boxthorn. Other prominent plants present are tree mallow, sea rocket, marram grass and hairy spinifex.
Fauna on Troubridge Island is represented by both birds and reptiles. As of 2009, almost 60 native bird species have been recorded including 21 species of conservation significance and 22 species listed as migratory. Dominant species include black-faced cormorants, Caspian terns, crested terns and fairy terns, Pacific gulls, little penguins, pied cormorants and silver gulls. As of 1996, starlings, an introduced species, is reported as having a popularion of 10,000 and was "competing with native species for roosting sites and fouling the keepers' cottages." The following reptile species have been recorded on Troubridge Island: marbled geckos and sleepy lizards.
Little penguin colony
Troubridge Island's little penguin colony was approximately 3000-5000 birds during the 1980s. In 2009, its population was estimated to be 3010 breeding adults. In 2011, the colony was believed to be stable. A census conducted in 2013 estimated a total population of 270 breeding adults, showing a severe and unexplained decline.
Troubridge Island is part of Troubridge Shoals which extend across to Yorke Peninsula and constitutes a hazard to shipping. Troubridge Shoals has been the cause of over 33 wrecks and groundings. During the period October 1849 to May 1850, at least seven vessels ran aground. precipitating the erection of a lighthouse in 1855.
Marion Reef, south of Troubridge Island, was named for the SS Marion, which ran aground in 1851 as did many others, has been (incorrectly) identified as part of Troubridge Shoals.
Protected areas status
Troubridge Island has been part of the Troubridge Island Conservation Park since 1982. In 1986, the park was extended for a distance about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) around the island to cover most of the sandbar of which the island is part. Since 2012, the island has been located within the boundaries of the Lower Yorke Peninsula Marine Park.
The island (including the full extent of the sandbar exposed at low tide) has been identified as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International because this area supports over 1% of the world populations of both black-faced cormorants (with up to 4000 individuals) and silver gulls (with up to 10,000 breeding pairs).
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- "Troubridge Island". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Management Plan - Althorpe Islands, Goose Island and Troubridge Island Conservation Parks. Adelaide: Department of Environment & Heritage (DEH). 2009. pp. 20–22. ISBN 978-1-921466-76-2.
- Management Plan - Althorpe Islands, Goose Island and Troubridge Island Conservation Parks. Adelaide: Department of Environment & Heritage (DEH). 2009. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-921466-76-2.
- Wiebkin, A. S. (2011) Conservation management priorities for little penguin populations in Gulf St Vincent. Report to Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resources Management Board. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2011/000188-1. SARDI Research Report Series No.588. 97pp.
- Colombelli-Négrel, D. & Kleindorfer, S. (2014-04) Penguin monitoring and conservation activities in the Gulf St Vincent July 2013 – June 2014 Report to the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Natural Resources Management Board, Flinders University, South Australia. Accessed 2014-07-28.
- "Shipping Intelligence.". South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 11 May 1850. p. 2. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Wreck of the Ship "Marion" on Troubridge Shoal". South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 2 August 1851. p. 2. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- Management Plan - Althorpe Islands, Goose Island and Troubridge Island Conservation Parks. Adelaide: Department of Environment & Heritage (DEH). 2009. pp. 1 & 12. ISBN 978-1-921466-76-2.
- "Lower Yorke Peninsula Marine Park, Management plan summary". Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources. 2012. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Dutson, Guy; Garnett, Stephen; Gole, Cheryl (October 2009). Australia’s Important Bird Areas, Key sites for bird conservation. Birds Australia. p. 33. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- Troubridge Island Conservation Park
- Troubridge Island Lighthouse on the South Australian Tourism Commission website