True toad

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True toads
Temporal range: 57–0Ma
Late Paleocene – Recent[1]
Common toad or European toad, Bufo bufo
Territorial call of an Atelopus franciscus male
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Suborder: Neobatrachia
Family: Bufonidae
Gray, 1825
Genera
Over 35 see text
Native distribution of Bufonidae (in black)

The true toads are the family Bufonidae, members of the order Anura (frogs and toads). They are the only family of anurans in which all members are known as "toads". The bufonids now comprise more than 35 genera, Bufo being the most widespread and well known.

Characteristics[edit]

True toads are widespread and are native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica, inhabiting a variety of environments, from arid areas to rainforest. Most lay eggs in paired strings that hatch into tadpoles, although, in the genus Nectophrynoides, the eggs hatch directly into miniature toads.[1]

True toads are toothless and generally warty in appearance. They have a pair of parotoid glands on the back of their heads. These glands contain an alkaloid poison which the toads excrete when stressed. The poison in the glands contains a number of toxins causing different effects. Bufotoxin is a general term. Different animals contain significantly different substances and proportions of substances. Some, like the cane toad Bufo marinus, are more toxic than others. Some "psychoactive toads", such as the Colorado River toad Bufo alvaris, have been used recreationally for the effects of their bufotoxin.

Male toads possess a Bidder's organ. Under the right conditions, the organ becomes an active ovary and the toad, in effect, becomes female.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

The Bufonidae family contains about 500 species among 37 genera.

Genus Latin name and author Common name Species
Adenomus Cope, 1861 Dwarf toads
3
Altiphrynoides Dubois, 1987 Ethiopian toads
2
Amietophrynus Frost et al., 2006
38
Anaxyrus
22
Andinophryne Hoogmoed, 1985 Andes toads
3
Ansonia Stoliczka, 1870 Stream toads
25
Atelopus Duméril & Bibron, 1841 Stubfoot toads
82
Bufo Laurenti, 1768 Toads
37
Bufoides Pillai & Yazdani, 1973 Mawblang toad
1
Capensibufo Grandison, 1980 Cape toads
2
Churamiti Channing & Stanley, 2002
1
Crepidophryne Cope, 1889 Cerro Utyum toads
3
Dendrophryniscus Jiménez de la Espada, 1871 Tree toads
7
Didynamipus Andersson, 1903 Four-digit toad
1
Duttaphrynus Frost et al., 2006
6
Epidalea Cope, 1864 Natterjack toad
1
Frostius Cannatella, 1986 Frost's toads
2
Ingerophrynus Frost et al., 2006
11
Laurentophryne Tihen, 1960 Parker's tree toad
1
Leptophryne Fitzinger, 1843 Indonesia tree toads
2
Melanophryniscus Gallardo, 1961 South American redbelly toads
20
Mertensophryne Tihen, 1960 Snouted frogs
20
Metaphryniscus Señaris, Ayarzagüena & Gorzula, 1994
1
Nectophryne Buchholz & Peters, 1875 African tree toads
2
Nectophrynoides Noble, 1926 African live-bearing toads
13
Nimbaphrynoides Dubois, 1987 Nimba toads
2
Oreophrynella Boulenger, 1895 Bush toads
8
Osornophryne Ruiz-Carranza & Hernández-Camacho, 1976 Plump toads
6
Parapelophryne Fei, Ye & Jiang, 2003
1
Pedostibes Günther, 1876 Asian tree toads
6
Pelophryne Barbour, 1938 Flathead toads
9
Pseudepidalea Frost, et al. 2006
16
Pseudobufo Tschudi, 1838 False toad
1
Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 Beaked toads
72
Schismaderma Smith, 1849 African split-skin toad
1
Truebella Graybeal & Cannatella, 1995
2
Werneria Poche, 1903 Smalltongue toads
6
Wolterstorffina Mertens, 1939 Wolterstorff toads
3

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Zweifel, Richard G. (1998). Cogger, H.G. & Zweifel, R.G., ed. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. 
  2. ^ Brown, Federico D., Eugenia M. Del Pino, and Georg Krohne. "Bidder's organ in the toad Bufo marinus: Effects of orchidectomy on the morphology and expression of lamina-associated polypeptide 2." Development, Growth & Differentiation. Wiley Online Library. Volume 44, Issue 6, pages 527–535, December 2002.
  • "Amphibian Species of the World 5.1 - Bufonidae". Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  • Stebbins, Robert. Western Reptiles & Amphibians (3rd ed.). Houghton Mifflin Co., 2003.
  • Halliday, Tim R., and Kraig Adler (editors). The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles & Amphibians. Facts on File, New York, 2002.

External links[edit]