The Truman Show

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The Truman Show
Film poster showing a large skyscraper located next to several smaller ones. On the side of the building is a large screen, showing a man laying his head on a pillow, eyes closed and smiling. Digital text above and below the screen state "LIVE" and "DAY 10,909", with the film's title right below it. Text at the top of the image includes the sole starring credit and text at the bottom includes the film's tagline and credits.
Theatrical poster
Directed by Peter Weir
Produced by Edward S. Feldman
Scott Rudin
Andrew Niccol
Adam Schroeder
Written by Andrew Niccol
Starring Jim Carrey
Laura Linney
Noah Emmerich
Natascha McElhone
Holland Taylor
Ed Harris
Music by Burkhard Dallwitz
Philip Glass
Cinematography Peter Biziou
Editing by William M. Anderson
Lee Smith
Studio Scott Rudin Productions
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release dates
  • June 5, 1998 (1998-06-05)
Running time 103 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $60 million.
Box office $264,118,201

The Truman Show is a 1998 American satirical social science fiction film directed by Peter Weir and written by Andrew Niccol. The cast includes Jim Carrey as Truman Burbank, as well as Laura Linney, Noah Emmerich, Ed Harris and Natascha McElhone. The film chronicles the life of a man who is initially unaware that he is living in a constructed reality television show, broadcast around the clock to billions of people across the globe. Truman becomes suspicious of his perceived reality and embarks on a quest to discover the truth about his life.

The genesis of The Truman Show was a spec script by Niccol, inspired by an episode of The Twilight Zone called "Special Service".[1] The original draft was more in tone of a science fiction thriller, with the story set in New York City. Scott Rudin purchased the script, and instantly set the project up at Paramount Pictures. Brian De Palma was in contention to direct before Weir took over and managed to make the film for $60 million against the estimated $80 million budget. Niccol rewrote the script simultaneously as the filmmakers were waiting for Carrey's schedule to open up for filming. The majority of filming took place at Seaside, Florida, a master-planned community located in the Florida Panhandle.

The film was a financial and critical success, and earned numerous nominations at the 71st Academy Awards, 56th Golden Globe Awards, 52nd British Academy Film Awards and The Saturn Awards. The Truman Show has been analyzed as a thesis on Christianity, metaphilosophy, simulated reality, existentialism and the rise of reality television.

Plot[edit]

Truman Burbank is the unsuspecting star of The Truman Show, a reality television program in which his entire life, since before birth, is filmed by thousands of hidden cameras, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and broadcast live around the world. The show's creator and executive producer Christof is able to capture Truman's real emotion and human behavior when put in certain situations. Truman's hometown of Seahaven is a complete set built under a giant arcological dome in the Los Angeles area. Truman's family and friends are all played by actors allowing Christof to control every aspect of Truman's life. To prevent Truman from discovering his false reality, Christof has invented means of dissuading his sense of exploration, including "killing" his father in a storm initiated by Christof while on a fishing trip to instill in him a fear of the water, and making many news reports and commercials about the dangers of traveling, and featuring television shows about how good it is to stay at home. Despite Christof's control, Truman has managed to behave in unexpected ways, in particular by falling in love with an extra, Sylvia, known to Truman as Lauren, instead of Meryl, the character intended to be his wife. Though Sylvia is quickly removed from the set and Truman marries Meryl, he continues to secretly pine for her. Sylvia becomes part of a "Free Truman" campaign that fights to free him from the show.

During the 30th year of the show, Truman notices certain aspects of his near-perfect world that seem out of place. A theatrical light falls from the artificial night sky constellations, nearly hitting him (quickly passed off by local radio as an aircraft's dislodged landing light) and Truman's car radio picks up a conversation between the show's crew tracking his movements. Truman also becomes aware of more subtle abnormalities within his regular day-to-day life, such as the way in which the same people appear in the same places at certain times each day and Meryl's tendency to blatantly advertise the various products she buys. Truman's supposedly deceased father then reappears on the set dressed as a homeless man and is whisked away as soon as Truman notices him.

Despite the best efforts of his family and his best friend Marlon to reassure him, all these events cause Truman to start wondering about his life, realizing how the world seems to revolve around him. Meryl grows increasingly stressed by the pressure of perpetuating the deception, and their marriage unravels in the face of Truman's increasing skepticism and attendant hostility towards her. Truman attempts to leave Seahaven but is blocked by his inability to arrange flights, bus breakdowns, sudden traffic jams, a forest fire and a nuclear meltdown – which he becomes skeptical of when the policeman, whom Truman had never met before, calls him by name. After Meryl breaks down and is taken off the show, Christof officially brings back Truman's father, hoping his presence will keep Truman from trying to leave. However, he only provides a temporary respite: Truman soon becomes isolated and begins staying alone in his basement after Meryl leaves him. One night, Truman fools the cameras and escapes the basement undetected via a secret tunnel, forcing Christof to temporarily suspend broadcasting of the show for the first time in its history. This causes a surge in viewership, with many viewers, including Sylvia, cheering on Truman's escape attempt.

Christof orders every actor and crew member to search the town, even breaking the town's daylight cycle to help in the search. They find that Truman has overcome his fear of the water and has sailed away from the town in a small boat named Santa Maria. After restoring the broadcast, Christof orders the show's crew to create a large storm to try to capsize the boat, prompting a heated debate with his superiors over the morality and legality of killing Truman in front of a live audience. Truman almost drowns, but his determination eventually leads Christof to terminate the storm. As Truman recovers, the boat reaches the edge of the dome, its bow piercing through the dome's painted sky. An awe-struck Truman then discovers a flight of stairs nearby, leading to a door marked "EXIT". As he contemplates leaving his world, Christof speaks directly to Truman via a powerful sound system, trying to persuade him to stay and arguing that there is no more truth in the real world than there is in his own, artificial world. Truman, after a moment's thought, delivers his catchphrase, "In case I don't see you... good afternoon, good evening, and good night", bows to his audience and steps through the door and into the real world. The assembled television viewers excitedly celebrate Truman's escape, and Sylvia quickly leaves her apartment to reunite with him. A network executive orders the crew to cease transmission. With the show completed, members of Truman's former audience are shown looking for something else to watch.

Cast[edit]

  • Jim Carrey as Truman Burbank: Chosen out of six unwanted pregnancies and the first child to be legally adopted by a corporation, he is unaware that his daily life is broadcast continuously around the world. He has a job in the insurance business and a lovely wife, but he eventually notices that his environment is not what it seems to be. Robin Williams was considered for the role, but Weir cast Carrey after seeing him in Ace Ventura: Pet Detective because Carrey's performance reminded him of Charlie Chaplin.[2] Carrey took the opportunity to proclaim himself as a dramatic actor, rather than being typecast in comedic roles.[3] Carrey, who was then normally paid $20 million per film, agreed to do The Truman Show for $12 million.[4] Carrey and Weir initially found working together on set difficult (Carrey's contract gave him the power to demand rewrites), but Weir was impressed with Carrey's improvisational skills, and the two became more interactive.[2] The scene in which Truman declares "this planet Trumania of the Burbank galaxy" to the bathroom mirror was Carrey's idea.[5]
  • Laura Linney as Hannah Gill playing Meryl Burbank, Truman's wife, a nurse at the local hospital. Since the show relies on product placement for revenue, Meryl regularly shows off various items she has recently "purchased," one of the many oddities that makes Truman question his life. Her role is essentially to act the part of Truman's wife and ultimately to have a child by him, despite her reluctance to accomplish either. Linney explains that Gill "was a child actress who never made it, and now she's really ambitious. Mostly she's into negotiating her contract. Every time she sleeps with Truman she gets an extra $10,000."[2] Linney heavily studied Sears catalogs from the 1950s to develop her character's poses.[6]
  • Ed Harris as Christof: The creator of The Truman Show. Christof remains dedicated to the program at all costs, often overseeing and directing its course in person (rather than through aides), but at the climax/resolution, he speaks to Truman over a loudspeaker, revealing the nature of Truman's situation. Dennis Hopper was originally cast in the role, but he left in April 1997 (during filming) over "creative differences." Harris was a last-minute replacement.[4] A number of other actors had turned down the role after Hopper's departure.[5] Harris had an idea of making Christof a hunchback, but Weir did not like the idea.[2]
  • Noah Emmerich as Louis Coltrane playing Marlon, Truman's best friend since early childhood. Marlon is a vending machine operator for the company Goodies, who promises Truman he would never lie to him, despite the latest events in Truman's life. Emmerich has said, "My character is in a lot of pain. He feels really guilty about deceiving Truman. He's had a serious drug addiction for many years. Been in and out of rehab."[2] His name is an amalgam of two jazz musicians, Louis Armstrong and John Coltrane, and in one scene he plays trumpet.[7]
  • Natascha McElhone as Sylvia (unknown last name) playing Lauren Garland (Truman's college schoolmate): Sylvia was hired to play a background extra, a fellow student at Truman's college, named Lauren. She became romantically involved with Truman and tried to reveal to him the truth about his life, but was thrown out of the show before she could do so. She then becomes a protester against The Truman Show, urging Christof to release its lead.
  • Brian Delate as Walter Moore playing Kirk Burbank, Truman's father. When Truman was a boy, his character on the show was killed off to instil a fear of water in his son that would prevent Truman from leaving the set; however, he sneaks back onto the set when Truman is an adult. This causes Truman to begin questioning his staged life, and as he tries to get away from it the writers are forced to write a plot in which Kirk had not drowned but had suffered from amnesia.
  • Holland Taylor as Alanis Montclair playing Angela Burbank, Truman's mother: Christof orders that she attempt to persuade Truman to have children.
  • Harry Shearer (cameo appearance) as Mike Michaelson (news anchor): Michaelson hosts TruTalk, an entertainment-news program about The Truman Show that broadcasts early in the morning.
  • Paul Giamatti as Simeon (control room director).
  • Peter Krause as Laurence (Truman's boss): At Truman's office, Laurence often interrupts Truman when he talks about his dreams of moving to Fiji.
  • Philip Glass, who composed and performed some of the film's soundtrack, makes a cameo appearance as the incidental keyboard player.

Production[edit]

Andrew Niccol completed a one-page film treatment titled The Malcolm Show in May 1991.[8] The original draft was more in tone of a science fiction thriller, with the story set in New York City.[6] Niccol stated, "I think everyone questions the authenticity of their lives at certain points. It's like when kids ask if they're adopted".[9] In the fall of 1993,[10] producer Scott Rudin purchased the script for slightly over $1 million.[11] Paramount Pictures instantly agreed to distribute. Part of the deal called for Niccol to have his directing debut, though Paramount felt the estimated $80 million budget would be too high for him.[12] In addition, Paramount wanted to go with an A-list director, paying Niccol extra money "to step aside." Brian De Palma was under negotiations to direct before he left United Talent Agency in March 1994.[10] Directors who were considered after de Palma's departure included Tim Burton, Terry Gilliam, Barry Sonnenfeld and Steven Spielberg before Peter Weir signed on in early 1995,[2] following a recommendation of Niccol.[9]

Paramount was cautious about The Truman Show which they dubbed "the most expensive art film ever made" because of its $60 million budget. They wanted the film to be funnier and less dramatic.[2] Weir also shared this vision, feeling that Niccol's script was too dark, and declaring "where he [Niccol] had it depressing, I could make it light. It could convince audiences they could watch a show in this scope 24/7." Niccol wrote sixteen drafts of the script before Weir considered the script ready for filming. Later on in 1995, Jim Carrey signed to star,[6] but because of commitments with The Cable Guy and Liar Liar, he would not be ready to start filming for at least another year.[2] Weir felt Carrey was perfect for the role and opted to wait for another year rather than recast the role.[6] Niccol rewrote the script twelve times,[2] while Weir created a fictionalized book about the show's history. He envisioned backstories for the characters and encouraged actors to do the same.[6]

Weir scouted locations in Eastern Florida but was unsatisfied with the landscapes. Sound stages at Universal Studios were reserved for the story's setting of Seahaven before Weir's wife introduced him to Seaside, Florida, a "master-planned community" located in the Florida Panhandle. Pre-production offices were instantly opened in Seaside, where the majority of filming took place. Other scenes were shot at Paramount Studios in Los Angeles, California.[5] Norman Rockwell paintings and 1960s postcards were used as inspiration for the film's design.[13][14] Weir, Peter Biziou and Dennis Gassner researched surveillance techniques for certain shots.[13]

The overall look was influenced by television images, particularly commercials: Many shots have characters leaning into the lens with their eyeballs wide open, and the interior scenes are heavily lit, because Weir wanted to remind viewers that "in this world, everything was for sale."[13] Those involved in visual effects work found the film somewhat difficult to make, because 1997 was the year many visual effects companies were trying to convert to computer-generated imagery.[14] CGI was used to create the upper halves of some of the larger buildings in the film's downtown set. Craig Barron, one of the effects supervisors, said that these digital models did not have to look as detailed and weathered as they normally would in a film because of the artificial look of the entire town, although they did imitate slight blemishes found in the physical buildings.[15]

Soundtrack[edit]

Themes[edit]

Religious analogy[edit]

Benson Y. Parkinson of the Association for Mormon Letters noted that Christof represented Jesus as an "off-Christ" ("Christ-off") or Antichrist, comparing the megalomaniacal Hollywood producer to Lucifer.[16] The conversation between Truman and Marlon at the bridge can be compared to one between Moses and God in the Book of Exodus.[17]

In C.S. Lewis and Narnia for Dummies by Rich Wagner, Christof is compared with Screwtape, the eponymous character of The Screwtape Letters by C. S. Lewis.[18]

Media[edit]

"This was a dangerous film to make because it couldn't happen. How ironic."

Director Peter Weir on The Truman Show predicting the rise of reality television[5]

In 2008, Popular Mechanics named The Truman Show as one of the 10 most prophetic science fiction films. Journalist Erik Sofge argued that the story reflects the falseness of reality television. "Truman simply lives, and the show's popularity is its straightforward voyeurism. And, like Big Brother, Survivor, and every other reality show on the air, none of his environment is actually real." He deemed it an eerie coincidence that Big Brother made its debut a year after the film's release, and he also compared the film to the 2003 program The Joe Schmo Show: "Unlike Truman, Matt Gould could see the cameras, but all of the other contestants were paid actors, playing the part of various reality-show stereotypes. While Matt eventually got all of the prizes in the rigged contest, the show's central running joke was in the same existential ballpark as The Truman Show."[19] Weir declared, "There has always been this question: Is the audience getting dumber? Or are we filmmakers patronizing them? Is this what they want? Or is this what we're giving them? But the public went to my film in large numbers. And that has to be encouraging."[9]

Ronald Bishop's paper in the Journal of Communication Enquiry suggests The Truman Show showcased the power of the media. Truman's life inspires audiences around the world, meaning their lives are controlled by his. Bishop commented, "In the end, the power of the media is affirmed rather than challenged. In the spirit of Antonio Gramsci's concept of hegemony, these films and television programs co-opt our enchantment (and disenchantment) with the media and sell it back to us."[20]

Simone Knox, in her essay "Reading The Truman Show inside out" argues that the film itself tries to blur the objective perspective and the show-within-the-film. Knox also draws a floor plan of the camera angles of the first scene.[21]

Psychological and pyschoanalytic interpretation[edit]

An essay published in the International Journal of Psychoanalysis analyzed Truman as

[A] prototypical adolescent at the beginning of the movie. He feels trapped into a familial and social world to which he tries to conform while being unable to entirely identify with it, believing that he has no other choice (other than through the fantasy of fleeing to a far-way island). Eventually, Truman gains sufficient awareness of his condition to "leave home" — developing a more mature and authentic identity as a man, leaving his child-self behind and becoming a True-man.[22]

Utopia[edit]

Parallels can be drawn from Thomas More's 1516 book Utopia, in which More describes an island with only one entrance and only one exit. Only those who belonged to this island knew how to navigate their way through the treacherous openings safely and unharmed. This situation is similar to The Truman Show because there are limited entryways into the world that Truman knows. Truman does not belong to this utopia into which he has been implanted, and childhood trauma rendered him frightened of the prospect of ever leaving this small community. Utopian models of the past tended to be full of like-minded individuals who shared much in common, comparable to More's Utopia and real-life groups such as the Shakers and the Oneida Community.[23] It is clear that the people in Truman's world are like-minded in their common effort to keep him oblivious to reality. The suburban "picket fence" appearance of the show's set is reminiscent of the "American Dream" of the 1950s. The "American Dream" concept in Truman's world serves as an attempt to keep him happy and ignorant.[23]

Release[edit]

The film's original theatrical release date was August 8, 1998, but Paramount Pictures considered pushing it back to around Christmas.[24] NBC purchased broadcast rights in December 1997, roughly eight months before the film's release.[25] In March 2000, Turner Broadcasting System purchased the rights and now often airs the film on TBS.[26]

Reception[edit]

The film received critical acclaim. Based on 111 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, The Truman Show received an average 94% overall "Certified Fresh" approval rating;[27] the website's consensus states, "A funny, tender, and thought-provoking film, The Truman Show is all the more noteworthy for its remarkably prescient vision of runaway celebrity culture and a nation with an insatiable thirst for the private details of ordinary lives."[28] Metacritic gave the film an average score of 90 from the 30 reviews collected.[29] Roger Ebert, comparing it to Forrest Gump, thought the film had a right balance of comedy and drama. He was also impressed with Jim Carrey's dramatic performance.[30] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times wrote, "The Truman Show is emotionally involving without losing the ability to raise sharp satiric questions as well as get numerous laughs. The rare film that is disturbing despite working beautifully within standard industry norms."[31] He would name it the best movie of 1998.[32] In June 2010, Entertainment Weekly named Truman one of the 100 Greatest Characters of the Last 20 Years.[33]

James Berardinelli liked the film's approach of "not being the casual summer blockbuster with special effects," and he likened Carrey's "[charismatic], understated and effective" performance to those of Tom Hanks and James Stewart.[34] Jonathan Rosenbaum of the Chicago Reader wrote, "Undeniably provocative and reasonably entertaining, The Truman Show is one of those high-concept movies whose concept is both clever and dumb."[35] Tom Meek of Film Threat said the film was not funny enough but still found "something rewarding in its quirky demeanor."[36]

Accolades[edit]

At the 71st Academy Awards, The Truman Show was nominated for three categories but did not win any awards. Peter Weir received the nomination for Best Director, while Ed Harris was nominated for Best Supporting Actor and Andrew Niccol was nominated for Best Original Screenplay.[37] Many believed Carrey would be nominated for Best Actor, but he was not.[2] In addition, The Truman Show earned nominations at the Golden Globe Awards for Best Motion Picture – Drama, Weir for Best Director – Motion Picture and Niccol for (Screenplay).[38] Jim Carrey and Ed Harris both won Golden Globes as Best Actor – Drama and Best Supporting Actor, respectively, as did Burkhard Dallwitz and Philip Glass for Best Original Score.

At the 52nd British Academy Film Awards, Weir (Direction), Niccol (Original Screenplay) and Dennis Gassner (Production Design) received awards. In addition, the film was nominated for Best Film and Best Visual Effects. Harris was nominated for Best Supporting Actor, and Peter Biziou was nominated for Best Cinematography.[39] The Truman Show was a success at The Saturn Awards, where it won the Best Fantasy Film and the Best Writing (Niccol). Carrey (Best Actor), Harris (Best Supporting Actor) and Weir (Direction) also received nominations.[40] Finally, the film won speculative fiction's Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.[41]

Award Category Subject Result
ASCAP Film and Television Awards Top Box Office Film Burkhard Dallwitz Won
Top Box Office Films Philip Glass Won
71st Academy Awards Best Supporting Actor Ed Harris Nominated
Best Director Peter Weir Nominated
Best Writing Andrew Niccol Nominated
American Comedy Awards Funniest Actor Jim Carrey Nominated
Australasian Performing Right Association Best Film Score Burkhard Dallwitz Nominated
Australian Film Institute Best Foreign Film Peter Weir Nominated
Blockbuster Entertainment Awards Best Supporting Actor - Drama Ed Harris Won
Best Actor - Drama Jim Carrey Nominated
Best Supporting Actress - Drama Laura Linney Nominated
Bogey Awards Bogey Award Won
52nd British Academy Film Awards Best Production Dennis Gassner Won
Best Screenplay Andrew Niccol Won
David Lean Award for Direction Peter Weir Won
Best Cinematography Peter Biziou Nominated
Best Film Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Ed Harris Nominated
Best Special Effects Nominated
British Society of Cinematographers Best Cinematography Peter Biziou Nominated
Broadcast Film Critics Association Best Film Nominated
Chicago Film Critics Association Best Score Burkhard Dallwitz Won
Best Actor Jim Carrey Nominated
Best Director Peter Weir Nominated
Best Picture Nominated
Best Screenplay Andrew Niccol Nominated
Costume Designers Guild Excellence in Costume Design Marilyn Matthews Nominated
Directors Guild of America Best Director in Motion Picture Peter Weir Won
Empire Awards Best Film Nominated
European Film Awards Screen International Award Peter Weir Won
Film Critics Circle of Australia Best Foreign Film Won
Florida Film Critics Circle Awards 1998 Best Director Peter Weir Won
Fotogramas de Plata Best Foreign Film Won
56th Golden Globe Awards Best Score Burkhard Dallwitz Won
Best Actor - Drama Jim Carrey Won
Best Supporting Actor Ed Harris Won
Best Director Peter Weir Nominated
Best Motion Picture - Drama Nominated
Best Screenplay Andrew Niccol Won
3rd Golden Satellite Awards Best Art Direction Dennis Gassner Won
Hugo Award Best Presentation Peter Weir Won
International Monitor Awards Theatrical Release Won
Nastro d'Argento Best Male Dubbing Roberto Pedicini (Jim Carrey) Won
Best Foreign Director Peter Weir Nominated
1999 Kids' Choice Awards Best Movie Actor Jim Carrey Nominated
London Critics Circle Film Awards Director of the Year Peter Weir Won
Screenwriter of the Year Andrew Niccol Won
Film of the Year Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards 1998 Best Production Design Dennis Gassner Nominated
1999 MTV Movie Awards Best Male Performance Jim Carrey Won
Best Movie Nominated
Motion Picture Sound Editors Best Sound Editing Nominated
MovieGuide Award Grace Award Jim Carrey Won
National Board of Review Awards 1998 Best Supporting Actor Ed Harris Won
Online Film Critics Society Awards 1998 Best Screenplay Andrew Niccol Won
Best Director Peter Weir Nominated
Best Film Nominated
Best Editing Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Ed Harris Nominated
Robert Festival Best American Film Won
25th Saturn Awards Best Fantasy Film Won
Best Writer Andrew Niccol Won
Best Actor Jim Carrey Nominated
Best Director Peter Weir Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Ed Harris Nominated
Southeastern Film Critics Association Awards 1998 Best Supporting Actor Ed Harris Won
Best Director Peter Weir Nominated
Valladolid International Film Festival Golden Spike Peter Weir Nominated
Writers Guild of America Awards 1998 Best Original Screenplay Andrew Niccol Nominated
20th Youth in Film Awards Best Family Feature Nominated

"The Truman Show Delusion"[edit]

Joel Gold, a psychiatrist at the Bellevue Hospital Center, revealed that by 2008, he had met five patients with schizophrenia (and heard of another twelve) who believed their lives were reality television shows. Gold named the syndrome "The Truman Show Delusion" after the film and attributed the delusion to a world that had become hungry for publicity. The syndrome predominantly affects young white men.[42]

Gold stated that some patients were rendered happy by their disease, while "others were tormented". One traveled to New York to check whether the World Trade Center had actually fallen — believing the 9/11 attacks to be an elaborate plot twist in his personal storyline. Another came to climb the Statue of Liberty, believing that he'd be reunited with his high-school girlfriend at the top and finally be released from the show.[42]

In August 2008, the British Journal of Psychiatry reported similar cases in the United Kingdom.[43] The delusion has informally been referred to as "Truman syndrome," according to an Associated Press story from 2008.[44]

After hearing about the condition, writer of The Truman Show Andrew Niccol said: "You know you've made it when you have a disease named after you."[45]

See also[edit]

Other works
Terms and concepts

References[edit]

  1. ^ Steinberg, Don (September 23, 2011). "Films Inspired by Rod Serling's "The Twilight Zone" – Snapshot". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 14, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Svetkey, Benjamin (1998-06-05). "The Truman Pro". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  3. ^ Weinraub, Bernard (1998-05-21). "Director Tries a Fantasy As He Questions Reality". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  4. ^ a b Busch, Anita M. (1997-04-07). "New Truman villain: Harris". Variety. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  5. ^ a b c d How's It Going to End? The Making of The Truman Show, Part 2 (DVD). Paramount Pictures. 2005. 
  6. ^ a b c d e How's It Going to End? The Making of The Truman Show, Part 1 (DVD). Paramount Pictures. 2005. 
  7. ^ "The Truman Show (1998)". Andrew Niccol. Retrieved January 30, 2012. 
  8. ^ Benedict Carver (1998-06-22). "'Truman' suit retort". Variety. Retrieved 2009-05-15. 
  9. ^ a b c Johnston, Sheila (1998-09-20). "Interview: The clevering-up of America". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  10. ^ a b Fleming, Michael (1994-03-10). "SNL's Farley crashes filmdom". 'Variety. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  11. ^ Fleming, Michael (1994-02-18). "TriStar acquires female bounty hunter project". 'Variety. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  12. ^ Blackwelder, Rob (2002-08-12). "S1M0NE'S SIRE". Spliced Wire. Retrieved 2008-03-28. 
  13. ^ a b c Rudolph, Eric (June 1998). "This is Your Life". American Cinematographer. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  14. ^ a b Faux Finishing, the Visual Effects of The Truman Show (DVD). Paramount Pictures. 2005. 
  15. ^ Rickitt, Richard (2000). Special Effects: The History and Technique. Billboard Books. pp. 207–208. ISBN 0-8230-7733-0. 
  16. ^ Benson Y. Parkinson. "The Truman Show (film)". Retrieved 2010-01-10. 
  17. ^ Parkinson, Benson (2003-09-19). "The Literary Combine: Intimations of Immortality on The Truman Show". Association for Mormon Letters. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  18. ^ Wagner, Richard (2005). C.S. Lewis and Narnia for Dummies. p. 179. 
  19. ^ Sofge, Erik (2008-03-28). "The 10 Most Prophetic Sci-Fi Movies Ever". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  20. ^ Bishop, R. (2000). "Good Afternoon, Good Evening, and Good Night: The Truman Show as Media Criticism". Journal of Communication Inquiry 24 (1): 6–18. doi:10.1177/0196859900024001002. 
  21. ^ Knox, Simone (2010). "Reading 'The Truman Show' inside out". Film Criticism 35 (1). 
  22. ^ Brearley, Michael; Sabbadini, Andrea (2008). "The Truman Show : How's it going to end?". The International Journal of Psychoanalysis 89 (2): 433–40. doi:10.1111/j.1745-8315.2008.00030.x. PMID 18405297. 
  23. ^ a b Beuka, Robert. SuburbiaNation: Reading Suburban Landscape in Twentieth Century American Fiction and Film. 1st ed. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004. ix-284.
  24. ^ Hindes, Andrew (1997-04-10). "Speed 2 shifted in sked scramble". Variety. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  25. ^ Hontz, Jenny (1997-12-18). "Peacock buys Par pic pack". Variety. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  26. ^ "Turner Broadcasting Acquires Runaway Bride, Deep Impact, The Truman Show, Forrest Gump and Others in Film Deal With Paramount". Business Wire. 2000-03-06. 
  27. ^ "The Truman Show". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  28. ^ "The Truman Show: Rotten Tomatoes'". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  29. ^ "Truman Show, The (1998): Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  30. ^ Ebert, Roger (1998-06-05). "The Truman Show". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  31. ^ Turna, Kenneth (1998-06-05). "The Truman Show". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  32. ^ Turan, Kenneth (1998-12-27). "'Truman Show' Was Definitely the One to Watch". Los Angeles Times. 
  33. ^ Adam B. Vary (June 1, 2010). "The 100 Greatest Characters of the Last 20 Years: Here's our full list!". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  34. ^ Berardinelli, James (1998-06-05). "The Truman Show". ReelViews. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  35. ^ Rosenbaum, Jonathan. "The Audience Is Us". Chicago Reader. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  36. ^ Meek, Tom. "The Truman Show". Film Threat. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  37. ^ "Academy Awards: 1999". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  38. ^ "Golden Globes: 1999". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  39. ^ "BAFTA Awards: 1999". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  40. ^ "Saturn Awards: 1999". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  41. ^ "Hugo Awards: 1999". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  42. ^ a b Ellison, Jesse (2008-08-02). "When Life Is Like a TV Show". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  43. ^ Fusar-Poli, P.; Howes, O.; Valmaggia, L.; McGuire, P. (2008). "'Truman' signs and vulnerability to psychosis". The British Journal of Psychiatry 193 (2): 168. doi:10.1192/bjp.193.2.168. PMID 18670010. 
  44. ^ Kershaw, Sarah (2008-08-27). "Look Closely, Doctor: See the Camera?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  45. ^ "NZ filmmaker adds to medical lexicon". 3 News NZ. March 20, 2013. 

External links[edit]

See also[edit]


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