Trump International Hotel and Tower (Chicago)
|Trump International Hotel and Tower|
Trump International Hotel and Tower as viewed from the Chicago River
Location of Trump Tower along the Chicago River
|Location||401 N. Wabash Ave.
|Construction started||March 17, 2005|
|Topped-out||August 16, 2008 (last concrete pour)
August 19, 2008 (ceremonial topping out)
January 3, 2009 (Spire ceremony)
|Opening||January 30, 2008|
|Cost||USD $ 847 million|
|Architectural||1,389 feet (423.4 m)|
|Roof||1,170 feet (356.6 m)|
|Top floor||1,116 feet (340.2 m)|
|Floor area||2,600,000 square feet (240,000 m2)|
|Lifts/elevators||27, made by Kone|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Adrian Smith, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill|
|Structural engineer||William F. Baker|
|Main contractor||Bovis Lend Lease|
The Trump International Hotel and Tower, also known as Trump Tower Chicago and Trump Tower, is a skyscraper condo-hotel in downtown Chicago, Illinois. The building, named after billionaire real estate developer Donald Trump, was designed by architect Adrian Smith of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Bovis Lend Lease built the 96-story structure, which reached a height of 1,389 feet (423 m) including its spire, its roof topping out at 1,170 feet (360 m). It is adjacent to the main branch of the Chicago River, with a view of the entry to Lake Michigan beyond a series of bridges over the river. The building received publicity when the winner of the first season of The Apprentice reality television show, Bill Rancic, chose to manage the construction of the tower over managing a new Trump National Golf Course and resort in Los Angeles, California.
Trump announced in 2001 that the skyscraper would become the tallest building in the world, but after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, he scaled back the building's plans, and its design underwent several revisions. When topped out in 2009, it became the second-tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, after another Chicago building, the Willis Tower (formerly known as the Sears Tower). Trump Tower Chicago surpassed the city's John Hancock Center as the building with the highest residence (apartment or condo) in the world, and held this title until the completion of the Burj Khalifa. As of 24 November 2012[update] it is the twelfth-tallest building in the world.
The design of the building includes, from the ground up, retail space, a parking garage, a hotel, and condominiums. The 339-room hotel opened for business with limited accommodations and services on January 30, 2008. April 28 of that year marked the grand opening with full accommodation and services of hotel services. A restaurant on the 16th floor, named Sixteen, opened in early 2008 to favorable reviews. The building topped out in late 2008 and construction was completed in 2009. As of 2013[update], the hotel is one of three in Chicago with an elite five-star rating and the building hosts a restaurant that is one of three in Chicago with a five-star rating, according to the Forbes Travel Guide.
The tower is situated at 401 North Wabash Avenue in the River North Gallery District, part of the Near North Side community area of Chicago. The building occupies the site vacated by the Chicago Sun-Times, one of the city's two major newspapers, and its location within the River North Gallery District places it in the neighborhood that has had a high concentration of art galleries since the 1980s. The site, at the foot of Rush Street, is located on the north side of the Chicago River just west of the Wrigley Building and the Michigan Avenue Bridge, and just east of Marina City and 330 North Wabash The building is close to numerous Chicago landmarks; it borders the Michigan-Wacker District, which is a Registered Historic District. Parts of the building are visible throughout the city, and the entire length of the building is visible from Chicago River waterway traffic, as well as from locations to the east along the river, such as the mouth of Lake Michigan, the Lake Shore Drive Overpass, and the Columbus Drive Bridge.
The building is across the Chicago River from the Chicago Loop, the city's business district. It is a block away from the southern end of the Magnificent Mile portion of Michigan Avenue. The restaurant on the 16th floor, which is named Sixteen, has a clear view of the Chicago River's entrance to Lake Michigan and of the four buildings completed in the 1920s that flank the Michigan Avenue Bridge (Wrigley Building, Tribune Tower, 333 North Michigan, and 360 North Michigan).
Design and architecture
The design of the building incorporates three setback features designed to provide visual continuity with the surrounding skyline, each reflecting the height of a nearby building. The first setback, on the east side of the building, aligns with the cornice line of the Wrigley Building to the east; the second, on the west side, aligns with River Plaza to the north and with the Marina City Towers to the west. The third setback, on the east side, relates to 330 North Wabash building (formerly known as IBM Plaza). However, some views distort the alignment of the second setback.a[›] The setbacks and rounded edges of the building combat vortex formation which may occur in the "Windy City". The body of the building is raised 30 feet (9.1 m) above the main Wabash entrance and 70 feet (21 m) above the Chicago River. The building uses clear low-emissivity coated glass and a curved wing-shaped polished stainless steel mullion system that projects 9 inches (23 cm) from the glass line. It incorporates a brushed stainless steel spandrel panels and clear anodized aluminum.
The building has 2,600,000 square feet (240,000 m2) of floor space, rises to 92 stories, and houses 486 luxury residential condominiums. These include studio apartments, a mixture of suites with one to four bedrooms, and five-bedroom penthouses. The tower also features a luxury hotel condominium with 339 guest rooms. The building includes, from the ground up, retail space, a parking garage, a hotel, and condominiums. The 3rd through 12th floors house lobbies, retail space, and the parking garage; the 14th floor and its mezzanine hosts a health club and spa. The 17th floor through the 27th-floor mezzanine contain hotel condominiums and executive lounges. The 28th through 85th floors have residential condominiums, and the 86th through 89th floors have penthouses. A 1.2-acre (4,900 m2) riverfront park and riverwalk, along a 500-foot (150 m) space in the area adjacent to the building to the east, was opened in the first half of 2010. The park facilitates public assembly and entertainment activity while linking the building effectively with aquatic commuters.
In 2011, the riverfront park landscaping surrounding the building, which is referred to as Trump Plaza and Riverwalk or sometimes just Trump Plaza, became the subject of controversy. In 2010, the Plaza had earned special recognition at the Mayor Daley's Landscape Awards. The press release noted the landscaping "for their magnificent new civic landscape that is a poetic interpretation of native Illinois that seems at once sophisticated and familiar." However, in 2011, the award-winning plantings of small sumac trees, ferns and native grasses with yellow, orange and red hues were removed and replaced with evergreens like junipers and boxwoods, pieces of gray stone, and purple perennials (catmint and salvia), which may require significantly less watering. To add to the controversy the planting was accompanied by a plan to light the trees to attract nighttime park visitors in conflict with the "dark skies" movement to reduce light pollution to facilitate better stargazing.
The building surpassed the record for containing the world's highest residence above ground-level, which had been held since 1969 by the nearby John Hancock Center. Because the Trump Tower has both hotel condominiums and residential condominiums, it does not contest the record held by the 79-story The Torch in Dubai, which, at 337 meters (1,106 ft), is the tallest all-residential building.
According to the Forbes Travel Guide: 2010 City Guide: Chicago, the building hosts one of the seven four-star restaurants in the city and one of the three four-star spas. The hotel is one of two four star hotels. In 2010 Chicago had two five-star hotels and two five-star restaurants. By the time of the Forbes Travel Guide: 2013 City Guide, the hotel and restaurant were each among only three five-star ratings in the city.
The original plan was to have a partial opening of three of the hotel's floors on December 3, 2007, with a grand opening to follow. The interim ceremony, however, was delayed until January 30, 2008, while the City of Chicago granted occupancy approval for the staff of the hotel in the first 27 floors. Four floors of guest rooms were opened, comprising 125 of the planned 339 rooms. By January 30, construction on the exterior of the building had passed the 53rd floor. The grand opening of the hotel, including amenities, originally scheduled for March 17, 2008, took place on April 28, 2008. Pulitzer-Prize-winning Chicago Tribune architecture critic Blair Kamin faults the zebrawood paneling in the hotel lobby, but another Tribune reporter praises the hotel for its "understated, contemporary look, distinguished by stunning views".
On the 16th floor, a restaurant named Sixteen opened in early February 2008, and an outdoor patio terrace, named The Terrace at Trump, opened on June 25, 2009 following the completion of construction. The restaurant opened to favorable reviews for its cuisine, decor, location, architecture, and view. Sixteen, which was designed by Joe Valerio, is described architecturally as a sequence of spaces that do not reveal themselves at once, but rather in "procession". The restaurant's foyer is T-shaped, and a passageway to the hotel is lined with floor-to-ceiling architectural bronze wine racks in opposing red and white wine rooms. The passageway leads to views—praised by Kamin—that showcase the Wrigley Building clock tower and the Tribune Tower's flying buttresses. Kamin notes that these views are "more intimate" than the panoramic ones of the Signature Room, a restaurant near the top of the Hancock Center. The views are described as equally impressive by day and by night. The main part of the procession is the Tower Room, a dining room with a 30-foot (9.1 m) dome-shaped ceiling made of West African wood. The dome is furnished with Swarovski chandeliers and incorporates mirrors so that all diners can experience the view. The Terrace, whose opening was reported on Reuters, has views of the Chicago River and Lake Michigan as well as Navy Pier's seasonal Wednesday and Saturday evening fireworks and was designed for al fresco dining. Located on the mezzanine level, the hotel bar named Rebar bar opened on April 18, 2008.
The 23,000-square-foot (2,100 m2) spa, named The Spa at Trump, opened in late March 2008. The spa offers gemstone-infused (diamond, ruby, or sapphire) oil massages, a "robe menu", hydrating masques, exfoliating salts and the "Deluge shower". The spa features a health club with an indoor pool, eleven treatment rooms, a private couples treatment suite, Swiss shower, and saunas. The Citysearch editorial review described this as the "Bentley of hotel spas". A Chicago Tribune critic spoke of the spa in positive terms for both the treatment and the physical spa itself. The Spa at Trump can be accessed from a large circular staircase inside the hotel, enabling its customers to access the facility from specially designed spa guest rooms without using the elevator.
In July 2001, when Donald Trump announced plans for the site of the former seven-story Sun-Times Building, the tower was expected to reach a height of 1,500 feet (460 m), which would have made it the world's tallest building. It was expected to contain between 2,400,000 and 3,100,000 square feet (220,000 and 290,000 m2) of floor space and cost about $77 million just for the property rights. Three architectural firms were considered: Lohan Associates, Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, and Skidmore, Owings and Merrill; Trump selected Skidmore, Owings and Merrill in August 2001. Adrian Smith, who had previously designed the Jin Mao Tower, headed the SOM team, giving Chicago a third skyscraper from the same firm which had previously designed the Willis Tower and the Hancock Center.
After the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, Trump reduced the planned height to 78 stories and 1,073 feet (327 m), to reduce the risk of similar attacks. Time magazine reported that a meeting between Smith and Trump about erecting the tallest building in Chicago was taking place at the actual time of the attacks. Some international news sources later claimed that the planned tower height was reduced to 900 feet (270 m) after the original plans called for a 150-story building that would reach 2,000 feet (610 m). These claims are supported by computer renderings from 1999 of the proposed skyscraper, shown in the Chicago Tribune in 2005.
The building's 1,073-foot (327 m) design was first released in December 2001. However, the first design did not meet with approval from other architects, or from the residents of Chicago. A subsequent revision in July 2002 resulted in an 86-floor design for use as an office and residential structure, similar to the current design which is, however, for a different combination of uses. Smith's 2002 plans put broadcast antennae (multiple communications dishes) at the top of the building. A revised 90-story, 1,125 feet (343 m) plan was unveiled in September 2003 for a building including condominiums, office space, a "condominium hotel", retail stores, and restaurants. In January 2004, another revision changed floors 17 through 26 from offices into condominiums and hotel rooms. In his May 2004 plan, Smith decided to top the building with an ornamental spire instead of communications dishes. These dishes, according to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, would not have counted toward the building's height. The spire, however, will count, raising the tower's height to 1,300 feet (396 m). At one point in 2005, Trump aspired to build a slightly taller building that would surpass the Sears Tower as the nation's tallest building, but Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley was against the plan. Eventually, Smith settled on a design with a height of 1,362 feet (415 m), which was the height of 2 World Trade Center, the shorter of the former twin World Trade Center towers. This height makes the Tower the third tallest in the United States after One World Trade Center and the Willis Tower.
On October 16, 2004, Donald Trump and Hollinger International, the parent company of the Chicago Sun-Times, completed the $73 million sale of the former home of the newspaper a week after it relocated. On October 28, 2004, Trump held a ceremony to begin the demolition of the former Sun-Times Building. The demolition and construction were financed by a 650-million-dollar loan from Deutsche Bank and a trio of hedge fund investors who represented George Soros as one of their sources of funds.
In March 2005, the construction process began with the sinking of the first caisson for the tower into the bedrock. In April, construction began on the foundation below the Chicago River. In July 2005, water from the river began seeping into the building site, through crevices in a corner where the foundation wall meets the Wabash Avenue Bridge. Divers discovered that the leak could not be sealed from the water side. After several other failed attempts to correct the problem, they drove a steel plate next to the gap and filled the space between with concrete after digging it out.
Within a single 24-hour period in October 2005, a fleet of 30 concrete trucks made 600 trips to pour 5,000 cubic yards (3,800 m3) of concrete, and thus create a 200-by-66-by-10-foot (61.0 m × 20.1 m × 3.0 m) concrete "mat". The mat serves as the base of the building, from which its spine rises. Those involved with the construction referred to the day as the "Big Pour". James McHugh Construction Co. was contracted for the concrete work on this job. They obtained the concrete from the Chicago Avenue and Halsted Street distribution site of Prairie Material Sales Inc of Bridgeview, Illinois, the former largest privately owned ready-mix concrete company in the United States. Prairie used a formula of concrete that had never been used in the construction business to meet a 10,000 psi (69 MPa) specification, which exceeded the standard 7,000 psi (48 MPa) for conventional concrete.
In October 2006, controversy erupted over a 10-by-4.5-foot (3.0 by 1.4 m) street kiosk at the foot of the Magnificent Mile in front of the Wrigley Building at 410 North Michigan Avenue that advertised Trump Tower a full block away. Extensive debate and publicity occurred on the issue of whether such advertising should have been allowed. Two distinct pieces of legislation in 2002 and 2003 by the Chicago City Council had authorized the kiosk, but sidewalk billboards were not common in Chicago at the time, and their desirability was questioned. Although there were demands from citizens' organizations and the local Alderman Burton Natarus (who had voted in favor of the legislation) to remove the kiosk, Trump agreed only to remove pricing information from the signage, after a request to remove all advertising from it. Originally, one side displayed the geographical information and the other side functioned as a billboard.
In a separate legal development, Donald Trump was sued by former Chicago Sun-Times publisher F. David Radler and his daughters in February 2008 for rescinding all "friends and family" condominium purchases, including Radler's. As president of the Sun-Times' holding company, Radler had negotiated the sale of the paper's headquarters building to Trump's consortium. The price of Radler's condo had been discounted by 10%, and only a 5% deposit was required instead of the standard 15%. Radler and family were part of a group of 40 insiders who were able to purchase property at about $500 per square foot ($5,400/m2). When the market value of the property eventually rose to over $1,300 per square foot ($14,000/m2), Trump nullified the "friends and family" sales. The insiders were involved in the planning and designing of the building. In January 2007, Trump cited both a clause about "matters beyond [the] seller's reasonable control" and the desire to "have more income to handle potentially higher construction costs". Despite Trump's concerns about higher construction costs, earlier in the same month, Ivanka Trump, his daughter and an executive of the company, had stated that the construction was $50 million under budget. In addition to the Radler suit over the validity of the "friends and family" discount contracts, a group of four owners sued over revisions to the closing terms, which placed limits on the owner occupancy of condo hotel units and excluded the meeting rooms and ballrooms from the common elements of which the owners have an interest.
In an additional legal issue, on February 8, 2005, Trump had closed on a construction loan of $640 million from Deutsche Bank for the project. He also obtained a $130–135 million junior mezzanine loan from another syndicate headed by Fortress Investment Group. As part of these contracts, Trump had included a $40 million personal guarantee. The contracts also mandated partial repayments for each closed unit sale, and minimum sale prices. In September 2008, due to slow unit sales, Trump sought to extend both loans until mid-2009 because he felt that it was necessary in the business environment and expected from the outset of the contract. On November 10, Deutsche Bank demanded the outstanding loan payment and the $40 million guarantee. Trump filed suit later that month against Deutsche Bank in New York State Supreme Court in an effort to excuse a repayment of more than $330 million that had been due November 7, and to extend the construction loan for an unspecified period of time because of extenuating circumstances arising from the financial crisis of 2007–2010. Trump cited a "force majeure" clause that allowed the borrower to delay completion of the project under a catch-all section covering "any other event or circumstance not within the reasonable control of the borrower". Trump not only sought an extension, but sought damages of $3 billion from the bank for its use of predatory lending practices to undermine the project and damage his reputation, which he claimed "is associated worldwide with on-time, under-budget, first-class construction projects and first-class luxury hotel operations." At the end of November, Deutsche Bank countersued Trump to force him to uphold his personal payment guarantee from February 2005, after he failed to repay the amount due November 7—a date that already had been extended. The suits did not interfere with Trump's ability to continue drawing on the credit line provided by Deutsche Bank, because without the project's continued financing, Deutsche Bank may have had to assume the role of developer. In March 2009, both parties agreed to suspend litigation and resolve the disagreement amicably in an effort to help the project to succeed. In September 2010, an amended loan agreement stopped the litigation and extended the term on an approximately $600 million construction loan for five years.
Bill Rancic, The Apprentice's season one winner in 2004, was originally hired to manage the project for a $250,000 salary. Rancic's title was President of the Trump International Hotel and Tower, but the title was somewhat misleading, because he was in fact learning on the job as an "Apprentice". Rancic's contract was renewed after his first year, but in September 2005 it appeared that his employment with Trump would finish at the end of his second year in April 2006. During 2005 Donald Trump, Jr., who had been involved in the building since its earliest stages in 1999, was overseeing the construction with weekly visits, while Rancic worked on sales and marketing. In December 2005, Rancic made it clear that he wanted to continue working for Trump, and in April 2006 his contract was renewed for a third year. In that year Donald Trump's children began to assume prominent public roles as in the Trump Organization; by January 2007 all three adult Trump children (Ivanka Trump, Donald Trump, Jr., and Eric Trump) were executives in the acquisitions and development division of the organization. By the time the Chicago Trump Tower's hotel opened in the building in January 2008, Donald Trump and his three adult children were in the spotlight, overseeing the construction.
Bovis Lend Lease, noted for work on Disneyland Paris, Petronas Towers, and the Time Warner Center, was the construction company. James McHugh Construction Co, the concrete subcontractor, implemented a comprehensive formwork for the construction of the building. At the completion of construction the building was the tallest formwork structure in the world, and follows in the footsteps of its neighbor, Marina City, as well as Chicago's Two Prudential Plaza, as past recordholders. Concrete moulding was used, because using a traditional ironwork structure would have required a building footprint that would have been too big for the property size, proportional to the height of the designed building. A steel frame would have had to be 25 feet (7.6 m) wider to have supported a building of this proportion. Concrete will counteract the force of wind with the force of gravity of the 360,000-short-ton (330,000 t) building. A new chemical process that leveraged more fluid liquid concrete facilitated pumping concrete up several hundred feet to the elevating construction site. Although previous technology limited formwork to 700 feet (210 m), this technology permitted the pumping of concrete 1,700 feet (520 m) high.
The building is cantilevered into a section of 420 million-year-old limestone bedrock 110 feet (34 m) underground. It uses 4-foot (1.2 m)-wide stilt-like pillars that were drilled beneath the building. Every 30 feet (9.1 m) around its perimeter, steel-reinforced concrete was poured into these holes to form the structural support. On top of these caisson shafts and pillars, an 8,400-short-ton (7,600 t) concrete pad foundation was built to support the building's spine. The building has 241 caissons, and the majority of the caissons only descend 75 feet (23 m) into hard clay. However, 57 of them go an additional 35 feet (11 m) into the ground, including 6 feet (1.8 m) of bedrock. The concrete spine uses five I-beam-shaped walls and exterior columns, narrowing to two as the building rises. Each floor is separated by a concrete slab, and stainless steel, glass, and aluminum panels are attached to each floor. 50,000 short tons (45,000 t) of reinforcing steel bars, called rebar, support the hotel. The extensive use of concrete makes the building more fireproof. Of the $600 million construction budget, $130 million was earmarked for the James McHugh Construction Co, who handled the 180,000-cubic-yard (140,000 m3) concrete-only portion of the job.
Two earlier business decisions by the Chicago Sun-Times led to substantial savings of time and money during the Trump Tower's construction. The original 1950s sea wall was built by the newspaper company to bomb-shelter thickness, to withstand a Cold War attack, and thus did not have to be broken down and rebuilt. Furthermore, the company decided in the 1970s to switch from petroleum-based to soy-based ink, which reduced ground pollution from the printing plant. This considerably reduced the costs and time for cleaning up the site prior to building anew.
On August 16, 2008, construction crews made the last major concrete pour to top off the Trump tower's concrete core, which was commemorated with an unofficial ceremony. To celebrate the milestone, a yellow tower crane raised a bucket full of concrete and an American flag to the rooftop of the skyscraper. Another ceremony occurred on August 19, when construction supervisors, structural engineers and company representatives from McHugh Construction made a minor concrete pour at the top of the Trump tower. Though Donald Trump was absent from both of these ceremonies, he, Donald Jr., Ivanka and Eric Trump attended the topping off party on September 24, 2008. Original plans called for the windows to be completed and the spire erected in October 2008. However, the spire installation was delayed through high winds in December 2008, and was finally completed on January 3, 2009. Kamin's critical opinion is that the spire is not aesthetically complementary.
At the September 2008 topping off ceremony, Donald Trump marketed his hotel by expressing doubts about the Chicago Spire ever being completed due to the financial crisis of 2007–2009. Trump's hotel was 25% unsold at the time of the ceremony, and was expected to need the mid-2009 construction loan extension that has caused legal complications. However, Donald, Jr. said that they were fortunate to complete the project, while the Spire and Waterview Tower were among developments hit by the economic slowdown that followed the financial crisis. Occupancy had begun on lower-floor condominiums at the time of the ceremony.
The Trump International Hotel and Tower rises 1,362 feet (415 m) from the building's main entrance on Wabash Avenue to the tip of the architectural spire. Upon its completion in 2009, the building became the seventh-tallest building in the world, behind the 1,380-foot (421 m) Jin Mao Tower in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. On November 17, 2009, however, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), which composes rankings of the tallest skyscrapers in the world based on various criteria, changed its standard for measuring a building's height. Prior to this change, a building's architectural height was calculated from the main entrance to the tip of the spire; new standards measured from the lowest open-air pedestrian level of a building. As the Trump International Hotel and Tower has a riverwalk entrance and pedestrian level 27 feet (8 m) below the building's Wabash Avenue entrance, the skyscraper's official height was recalculated as 1,389 feet (423 m) without a physical addition to the structure. According to the CTBUH, the recalculated height also made the tower the sixth-tallest building in the world, surpassing the Jin Mao Tower by 9 feet (3 m). In January 2010, the building moved back to its position as seventh-tallest with the opening of the 2,717-foot (828 m) Burj Khalifa in Dubai. As of 2012[update] it is the 11th tallest building in the world.
The building's planning and redesign led to publicity in local and national media both before and during its construction. For example, on September 19, 2007, the Trump International Hotel and Tower was featured on an episode of the Discovery Channel series Build It Bigger titled "High Risk Tower".
The final confrontation scene between Batman and The Joker in the 2008 film The Dark Knight was shot at the construction site of the then partially completed tower. The 2009 annual Countdown Chicago on ABC7, hosted by Mark Giangreco and Janet Davies was filmed on the roof of the hotel and in the Sixteen restaurant.
The tower was also one of the key locations filmed in Chicago for the 2011 film Transformers: Dark of the Moon. The tower is the location where Dylan and Carly are staying during the film. During the climatic battle scenes, the tower is seen damaged due to the Decepticon invasion of Chicago.
Several local celebrities have purchased units in the building, including numerous professional athletes. Juwan Howard, Rex Grossman (who has put his unit on the market), and Patrick Kane are among the purchasers of Trump properties. Derrick Rose purchased a $2.8 million 3,102-square-foot (288.2 m2) condo in spring 2012.
Fodor's Chicago 2010 ranks the hotel as having one of the best spas and one of the best pools in the city. It also ranked the hotel as a Fodor's Choice among Chicago lodging options. Fodor's also notes that the hotel has impeccable service and lavish amenities, but also notes that the hotel may be a bit "too decadent", with offerings such as $25 bottles of water. Frommer's Chicago 2010 describes the hotel as having the gorgeous views and upscale amenities to provide a place to go to live the life of a wealthy tourist. The building is praised for its location, which provides as many views along the Chicago River as possible. Its modern architecture is praised for "contemporary synthesis of adjacent building fabrics and modulations" that preserve the city's architectural heritage and integrate the riverfront setting. BlackBook Magazine's Guide to Chicago describes the Hotel as an embodiment of poshness which gives the visitor bragging rights upon his/her return home. Forbes Travel Guide describes the hotel as having an understated upscale lobby, sophisticated lounge, gorgeous restaurant and lavish rooms with amazing views. It also describes the hotel as befitting of the Trump name in several ways. Time Out describes the building as a "testament to a vibrant 21st-century optimism in Chicago". It notes that the hotel meets all expectations attached to the name Trump in terms of luxury, modern conveniences and speaks highly of the views. Insight Guides describes the building's architectural swagger as fitting for the post-September 11 attacks skyline.
- Trump International Hotel and Tower
- List of buildings and structures
- List of tallest buildings in Chicago
- List of tallest buildings in the United States
- List of tallest buildings in the world
- Diesenhouse, Susan (2008-09-18, corrected 2008-09-28). "As Trump tower rises, worries pile up: Building battles challenges of nature, markets". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- "Trump International Hotel and Tower". Encyclopedia of Things. Glasssteelandstone. 13 January 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- "Trump International Hotel & Tower - The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.
- "Trump International Hotel & Tower". kone.com. Kone. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
- Rotzoll, Brenda Warner (1992-09-11). "Gallery District Boundaries Reach Beyond River North". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Robert Wagner (1978-02-03). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Michigan-Wacker Historic District" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- Conklin, Mike (2005-05-11). "Outdoor theater: A spectacle in progress". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- "Trump International Hotel & Tower". Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Archived from the original on 2007-03-06. Retrieved 2008-06-09.
- Beaver, p. 324.
- Janega, James (2005-03-27). "Rooted in bedrock, reaching for the sky: Trump tower will go far above --and far below-- its neighbors". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- Binder, Georges (2006). 101 of the world's tallest buildings. Images Publishing. p. 216. ISBN 1-86470-173-0.
- "Trump Organization Project overview (click "brochure" link at the foot of the page)" (PDF) (Press release). trumpchicago.com. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
- "Trump International Hotel & Tower Chicago (See the pictures within the architectural design option)". trumpchicago.com. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
- Joseph Askins (2010-05-03). "an-early-afternoon-visit-to-trumps-riverwalk". Retrieved 2011-01-30.
- Beaver, p. 328.
- "NORTHSIDE COLLEGE PREP "JOY GARDEN" NAMED GARDEN OF THE YEAR AT MAYOR DALEY’S 2010 LANDSCAPE AWARDS". City of Chicago. 2010-11-06. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
- Kamin, Blair (2011-06-03). "Landscaping gets unwelcome overhaul at Trump Tower". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
- "Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago, Illinois, USA". SPG Media Limited. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- "Tallest Single-Function Residential Buildings in the World1". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
- Forbes Travel Guide: 2010 City Guide: Chicago, p. 4
- "Forbes Travel Guide 2013 Star Award Winners". Startle.com. Archived from the original on 2013-06-30. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
- "FTR: For The Record, week ended 1.11.08". Crain's Chicago Business. 31, no. 2 (Crain Communications Inc.). 2008-01-14. p. 12. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- Sharoff, Robert (2008-02-13). "A Chicago Hotel's New Life in a Rising Area". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-11.
- Leo, Jen (2008-01-31). "Chicago - Donald Trump opens another hotel". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Bergen, Kathy (2007-11-19). "Trump's hotel opening may be delayed: With 'soft' launch two weeks away, city hasn't yet issued necessary permit". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 2007-11-22. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- Bergen, Kathy (2008-01-31). "1st look at Trump hotel reveals 5-star views: 4 floors of rooms open in still-rising skyscraper". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- "Trump Tower Hotel Opens To Guests: Mogul's Project Delayed Nearly 2 Months". NBC5.com. NBCUniversal. 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2008-09-26.
- "A bogey in Chicago too". Chicago Tribune. 2007-12-06. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- Slania, John T. (2008-01-28). "The inside jobs at Trump Tower". Crain's Chicago Business. p. 35.
- "Trump Tower tour". Chicago Tribune. 2008-04-29. Retrieved 2008-06-09.
- Foster, Stella (2008-04-29). "Safety first". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2008-06-09.
- Kamin, Blair (2008-03-01). "Our architecture critic evaluates Trump's new restaurant: By design: Sweet Sixteen dining". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- "The Terrace at Trump Opens June 25, 2009". PR Newswire. 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
- Bianchi, Laura (2007-03-31). "Sixteen soars with city's finest". Crain's Chicago Business (Crain's Communication, Inc.). Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- Slavid, Ruth (2008-03-03). "Architecture critic attempts to eat dinner, but is distracted by giant dome". Architects Journal. Emap. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- "Sixteen". Trumphotels.com. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- Shames, Lisa (July 2008). "A Supersweet Sixteen: At Trump's sky-high eatery, the views are only rivaled by the food". Chicago Social. p. 204.
- Vettel, Phil (2008-04-10). "Review: Sixteen: Bold and luxe, Trump restaurant lives up to the hype". Metromix. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- Shouse, Heather (2008-03-13-2008-03-19). "Restaurant review: Sixteen: Trump's Chicago debut finds a niche, but a tiny, tony one.". Time Out Chicago. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- "The Terrace at Trump Opens June 25, 2009". Reuters. 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
- "The Terrace at Trump". Metromix. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
- Budell, Karen (2008-04-23). "Send In The Reinforcements - Can this new hotel lounge Trump your standard night out?". RedEye. Retrieved 2008-06-09.
- "The Experience". trumpchicagohotel.com. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
- "Just opened: Spa at Trump". Time Out Chicago. 2008-03-20–2008-03-26. Archived from the original on 2008-05-24. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
- Moloney, Valerie. "Editorial Review for The Spa at Trump". Citysearch.com. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
- Stevens, Heidi (2008-05-04). "Between a rock and a hot place: Trump spas gemstone oil and heated table turn muscles to goo". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- "Ready For A Little R&R?: Three big-name spas — and a few smaller local gems — hit the Chicago beauty scene". Chicago Social. July 2008. p. 52.
- Fountain, John W. (2001-07-28). "Eyes of Chicago Turn to Plan for a New Landmark". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Corfman, Thomas A. (2001-07-18). "Trump, Sun-Times plan tower - Builder, paper's parent may erect tallest structure". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Ford, Liam (2001-07-19). "Daley `excited' by Trump plan - Skyscraper won't be restricted in height, he says". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Corfman, Thomas A. (2001-07-14). "Selling to The Donald ? - Trump is planning ritzy condos, hotel for Sun-Times site". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Corfman, Thomas A. (2001-07-18). "Trump , Sun-Times plan tower - Builder, paper's parent may erect tallest structure". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Kamin, Blair (2001-07-20). "Note to The Donald: It's the quality, stupid". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Nance, Kevin (2005-11-27). "The Man of steel: Able To Leap Tall Buildings". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Kamin Blair (2009-05-11). "Trump 's towering toothpick - The Donald's too-skinny, prominent spire calls to mind a plastic toy". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Kamin, Blair (2001-12-12). "Selling to The Donald ? - Trump is planning ritzy condos, hotel for Sun-Times site". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Lacayo, Richard (2004-07-25). "Tall Order". Time (Time, Inc.). Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Lacayo, Richard (2004-12-30). "Going Up ... and Up: When Height Is All That Matters". Time (Time, Inc.). Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Arndt, Michael (2005-03-17). "The Donald Aims Higher in Chicago". Businessweek. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Kamin, Blair (2005-03-25). "Getting to the point: A tower's aspirations". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
- Kamin, Blair (2001-12-19). "Trump 's skyscraper reaches for mediocrity". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Miller, Sabrina L. (2002-07-19). "City planners give their approval to Trump's riverfront tower plan - New skyscraper would be 4th tallest in Chicago". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Kamin, Blair (2004-05-27). "Will Trump say: 'You're higher'?". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Umberger, Mary and Thomas A. Corfman (2003-09-24). "Trump unwraps building plan - Skyscraper would be city's 4th-tallest; completion set for 2007". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Kamin, Blair (2003-09-24). "Improved design wrapped in promises". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Corfman, Thomas A. (2004-01-23). "Trump erases tower's offices - Number of condos, hotel rooms to rise". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Kamin, Blair (2005-03-09). "Trump dumps lofty goal for tower's spire". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Roeder, David (2005-03-09). "Trump curbs his soaring ambition". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Kamin, Blair (2006-02-10). "It has emerged: Suddenly, the Trump Tower seems very real – and even a little terrifying". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- Janega, James and Blair Kamin (2005-02-10). "Daley to Trump: You're spired: The mayor wants a fancy top. The Donald disagrees. Guess who wins". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- "Trump tower deal final". Chicago Tribune. 2004-10-16. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Downes, Lawrence (2004-10-30). "Defacing the Skyline, a Heartless Act in the Heart of Chicago". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- "Business". Chicago Tribune. 2004-10-29. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Roeder, David (2004-10-29). "This Trump show is called 'Demolition'". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Corfman, Thomas A. (2004-10-28). "Big names back Trump tower - Soros, Deutsche Bank said to be in on 90-story building". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Janega, James (2005-03-27). "Rooted in bedrock, reaching for the sky - Trump tower will go far above --and far below-- its neighbors". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Conklin, Mike (2005-10-03). "Trump's Big Pour: It took 30 trucks 600 trips to make concrete history". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- Kamin, Blair (2006-10-20). "Trim in store for Trump's promotional kiosk sign". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- Kamin, Blair (2006-10-27). "Trump's harrumph: Developer calls to debate the merits of his Michigan Avenue hotel-condo ad". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- Gallun, Alby (2008-02-11). "Radler Sues Ex-pal Trump". Crain's Chicago Business (Crain Communications, Inc.). p. 2. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- Weber, Joseph (2008-03-18). "The Setting Sun-Times: Feisty and muckraking, the Chicago Sun-Times is also losing readers, advertisers, and money". Businessweek. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Diesenhouse, Susan (2007-01-16). "Trump undoing deals: Condo buyers who got discounts in friends/family program told contracts voided". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
- "Trump dumps 'Friends and Family'". United Press International. 2007-01-16. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- Nunn, Emily (2007-01-05). "The daughter also rises: Ivanka Trump stands tall in her father's world of skyscrapers and billion-dollar deals". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- Sachdev, Ameet (2008-02-12). "Trump tower tenants sue over deal changes: Would-be tenants allege deal details were altered". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- "Trump closes loan, boosts project size". Chicago Tribune. 2005-02-09. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
- Norris, Floyd (2008-12-08). "Trump Sees Act of God in Recession". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
- Bergen, Kathy and Susan Diesenhouse (2007-12-02). "Towering troubles? - Donald Trump , stymied in his plan for a Monday opening of several floors of the gleaming but still unfinished Trump International Hotel & Tower, is dealing with a real estate and financial climate that has become far less hospitable for sales of condo-hotel units than was the case when the 92-story skyscraper -- which also includes ordinary condominiums and a hotel -- was conceived". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
- Podmolik, Mary Ellen (2008-12-01). "Deutsche Bank sues Trump over hotel loan - Lawsuit alleges builder failed to make payment". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
- Podmolik, Mary Ellen (2008-09-25). "Tower trumps slowdown - Completion of luxury hotel and condos a feat even Donald Trump acknowledges in this tough economy". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
- "Trump receives cash from Deutsche Bank". Chicago Tribune. 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
- Podmolik, Mary Ellen (2009-03-04). "Truce reached over Trump Tower- Developer, Deutsche Bank shelve dueling lawsuits in bid to lure condo buyers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
- Podmolik, Mary Ellen (2010-10-12). "Trump Tower dressing up model units to spur sales: Skyscraper finalizing plans to turn five of its unsold condominiums into furnished models". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
- Davey, Monica (2004-04-17). "Chicago May Give 'Apprentice' Lesson in Reality". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- "Trump's $250,000 bill". U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News & World Report, L.P. 2004-09-12. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Kinzer, Stephen (2004-09-10). "'The Apprentice' Is Learning About the Trump Style". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- "Trump's 1st Apprentice Eyes Future: Bill Rancic Says He'll Quit Next Year, Wants To Start Own Business". CBS News (CBS Interactive Inc/The Associated Press). 2005-09-08. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Diesenhouse, Susan (2005-09-18). "Trump Jr. builds on roots: Working for father, he's in Chicago regularly to check progress on hotel/condo tower". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- Rosenbush, Steve (2005-12-01). "Trump deal working out for apprentice". Businessweek. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Herbst, Diane (2006-04-10). "Bill Rancic: The Apprentice star dishes on The Donald and the dating scene". People. Time Inc. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Itzkoff, Dave (2006-12-31). "Reluctant Apprentices". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- La Ferla, Ruth (2007-12-27). "Introducing the Ivanka". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- Slania, John T. (2008-01-28). "The right-hand man". Crain's Chicago Business. p. 34. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- Davey, Monica (2007-05-25). "Trump & Co. Hits Chicago to Drum Up Apartment Sales". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Holland, Liz (2008-04-23). "Now Open: Rebar". NBC5 Street Team. NBC5. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
- "Chicago's Trump Tower soon to be 'topped off'". Tribune staff report (Chicago Tribune). 2008-08-16. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- Vivanco, Leonor (2008-09-16). "The high life". RedEye. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- "Wind Delays Spire Installation On Trump Tower". WBBM-TV. 2008-12-14. Archived from the original on 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- Kamin, Blair (2009-01-03). "Trump Tower spire topped out; installation brings tower's peak 90 feet short of Willis Tower". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- "Even Trumps feel tremors in the market". Chicago Tribune. 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- "Spire Will Never Happen, Trump Says". NBC5.com. NBCUniversal. 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2008-09-26.
- Gallun, Alby (2008-09-24). "Trump to ask for later loan due date". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
- Podmolik, Mary Ellen (2008-09-25). "Tower trumps slowdown- Completion of luxury hotel and condos a feat even Donald Trump acknowledges in this tough economy". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- Donovan, Deborah (2008-09-25). "Trumps celebrate towering achievement". Daily Herald. Daily Herald Inc. Retrieved 2008-09-26.
- "Geographic Information Systems". Chicago Public Schools. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Near North/West/Central Elementary Schools" (PDF). Chicago Public Schools. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "West/Central/South High Schools" (PDF). Chicago Public Schools. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Kamin, Blair (18 November 2009). "Trump Tower now sixth-tallest building in world". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Jin Mao Building". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "CTBUH changes height criteria". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- Orichuia, Nicola (18 November 2009). "Trump Trumps Other Buildings, Now 6th Largest". nbcchicago.com. NBCUniversal. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Height: The History of Measuring Tall Buildings". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "100 tallest completed buildings in the world". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Mark Your Calendar Now!". Discovery Communications, LLC. 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- "Chicago Hotels Star In 'Dark Knight'". Hotels. Reed Business Information. Archived from the original on 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
- Arroyave, Luis (2010-07-17). "Magnificent 'Transformers' explosions, fires on the Mile". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
- Murphy, Mekado (2011-06-22). "Welcome to Chicago, Just Don’t Kill Us". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-07-01.
- Goldsborough, Bob (2010-01-03). "NBA star Juwan Howard buys condo in Trump tower". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
- "Bulls' Derrick Rose buys condo in Trump Tower for $2.8 million". Chicago Tribune. 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
- Fodor's, (November 2009). "Best Bets For Chicago Lodging". Fodor's Chicago 2010. Fodor's. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-4000-0860-5.
- Fodor's, (November 2009). Fodor's Chicago 2010. Fodor's. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-4000-0860-5.
- Blackwell, Elizabeth Canning (November 2009). "The Best Hotel Bets". Frommer's Chicago 2010. Frommer's. p. 69. ISBN 0-470-50468-4.
- Gil, p. 127
- Forbes Travel Guide: 2010 City Guide: Chicago, p. 9
- Forbes Travel Guide: 2010 City Guide: Chicago, p. 106
- Time Out: Chicago, p. 77
- Time Out: Chicago, p. 135
- Gattuso, p. 95
- Beaver, Robyn, ed. (2007). The architecture of Adrian Smith, SOM: toward a sustainable future. Images Publishing Group Pty. Ltd. ISBN 1-86470-169-2. Retrieved 2009-12-08.
- Gil, Fernando Cwilich, ed. (2008). BlackBook: Guide To Chicago 2009 Restaurants, Bars, Clubs, Hotels. Blackbook Media Corp. ISBN 978-1-932942-43-9.
- Forbes Travel Guide: 2010 City Guide: Chicago. The Five Star Corporation. 2010. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-1-936020-05-9|978-1-936020-05-9 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check
- Time Out: Chicago. Time Out Guides Ltd. 2009. ISBN 978-1-84670-138-2.
- Gattuso, John, ed. (2008). Insight Guides: Chicago. Apa Publications Gmbh & Co. Verlag KG. ISBN 978-981-258-612-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- Trump International Hotel & Tower Chicago Official Hotel Website
- Trump International Hotel & Tower Chicago Official Real Estate Website
- Trump Organization Official Website
- Trump International Hotel & Tower on CTBUH Skyscraper Center
- Chicago Tribune story gallery
- archive at Chicago Tribune
- Trump Tower Floorplans
- Google Earth model
John Hancock Center
|Building with the highest residence above ground-level