Bửu born in 1752 in Thạch Phú Đông, Giồng Trôm District, Bến Tre Province. In 1797, he joined the army of Nguyễn Ánh and became a đốc chiêu cai cơ (commander). Later, he become the Deputy Marshal of the Nguyễn Army's Front Division. In 1802, after the unification of Vietnam, he became the military commander of Nguyen armies in northern Vietnam and later the Viceroy of Bắc Thành. In 1816, he become the Deputy Marshal of the Nguyễn Army's Central Division which guarding Huế, the capital of Nguyễn dynasty. In 1823, he took up the post of Viceroy of Gia Định replacing Lê Văn Duyệt. Shortly thereafter, he retired because of illness and then died in 1827 at the age of 75.