Tryggevælde Runestone

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Inscriptions A and B.
Inscription C.

Tryggevælde Runestone, designated as DR 230 under Rundata, is a runestone housed in the National Museum of Denmark, in Copenhagen. It is classified as being carved in runestone style RAK, and is dated to about 900 CE.

Description[edit]

In 1555, the runestone was moved from a barrow to the Tryggevælde estate on Zealand. It came to Copenhagen in 1810.[1]

There are several holes on the runestone, but no one knows why. Ragnhild, who raised the runestone, also had Glavendrup stone (DR 209) made after another husband named Alle. That runestone is located at a barrow and a stone ship in Glavendrup on the island of Funen. Both the Glavendrup and Tryggevælde runestones were made by the same runemaster, Sote.

The inscription ends with a curse against anyone who would destroy or move the runestone that is similar to the ones found on the Glavendrup stone and the Saleby Runestone in Sweden. There is some disagreement regarding the translation of one of the words in these curses, rita/rata, which has been translated as "wretch," "outcast," or "warlock."[2] Warlock is the translation accepted by Rundata. However, the use of warlock is not that the destroyer would gain any magical powers, but be considered to be unnatural and a social outcast.[3] The concept that being a warlock or sorcerer was an evil perversion predated the conversion of Scandinavia to Christianity.[3]

This inscription is the first mention of the Old Scandinavian ship type skeið.

Inscription[edit]

Transliteration of the runes into Latin characters[edit]

  • A raknhiltr ' sustiR ' ulfs ' sati ' stain ¶ þnnsi ' auk ' karþi ' hauk ' þonsi auft ¶ auk skaiþ ' þaisi ¶ kunulf ' uar sin ' klomulan man ¶ (s)un ' nairbis ' faiR ' uarþa ' nu futiR ' þoi batri
  • B sa uarþi ' at (') rita ' is ailti stain þonsi
  • C iþa hiþan traki[4]

Transcription into standardized Old Norse[edit]

  • A Ragnhildr, systir Ulfs, setti stein þenna ok gerði haug þenna ept, ok skeið þessa, Gunnulf, ver sinn, glômulan mann, son Nerfis. Fáir verða nú fœddir þeim betri.
  • B Sá verði at réta(?) er elti(?) stein þenna
  • C eða heðan dragi.

Transcription into standardized Old Danish[edit]

  • A Ragnhildr, systiR Ulfs, satti sten þænsi ok gærþi høg þænsi æft, ok skeþ þæssi, Gunulf, wær sin, glamulan man, sun Nærfis. FaiR wærþa nu føddiR þem bætri.
  • B Sa wærþi at ræta(?) æs ælti(?) sten þænsi
  • C æþa hæþan dragi.[4]

Translation in English[edit]

  • A Ragnhildr, Ulfr's sister, placed this stone and made this mound, and this ship(-setting), in memory of her husband Gunnulfr, a clamorous man, Nerfir's son. Few will now be born better than him.
  • B A warlock(?) be he who damages(?) this stone
  • C or drags it (away) from here.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Danmark: Tryggevælde, Karise Socken (Swedish website).
  2. ^ Nielsen, M. L. (1998). "Glavendrup". In Hoops, Johannes; Beck, Heinrich. Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 12. Walter de Gruyter. p. 198. ISBN 3-11-016227-X. 
  3. ^ a b MacLeod, Mindy; Mees, Bernard (2006). Runic Amulets and Magic Objects. Boydell Press. pp. 225–226. ISBN 1-84383-205-4. 
  4. ^ a b c Project Samnordisk Runtextdatabas Svensk - Rundata.