|Classification and external resources|
Trypanosomiasis or trypanosomosis is the name of several diseases in vertebrates caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma. Approximately 500,000 men, women, and children in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa suffer from human African trypanosomiasis, which is caused by either Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The other human form of trypanosomiasis, called Chagas disease, causes 21,000 deaths per year  (mainly in Latin America).
- Nagana, or Animal African trypanosomiasis, also called 'Souma' or 'Soumaya' in Sudan.
- Mal de caderas (of central South America)
- Murrina de caderas (of Panama; Derrengadera de caderas)
- Cachexial fevers (various)
- Gambian horse sickness (of central Africa)
- Baleri (of Sudan)
- Kaodzera (Rhodesian trypanosomiasis)
- Tahaga (a disease of camels in Algeria)
- Galziekte, galzietzke (bilious fever of cattle; gall sickness of South Africa)
- Peste-boba (of Venezuela; Derrengadera)
Clinical signs and diagnosis
Cattle may show enlarged lymph nodes and internal organs. Haemolytic anaemia is a characteristic sign. Systemic disease and reproductie are common, and cattle appear to waste away.
Horses with dourine show signs of ventral and genital edema and urticaria.
Infected dogs and cats may show severe systemic signs.
In humans the tsetse fly bite erupts into a red sore and within a few weeks the person can experience fever, swollen lymph glands, aching muscles and joints, headaches and irritability. In advanced stages, the disease attacks the central nervous system and people present with changes in personality, alteration of the biological clock (the circadian rhythm), confusion, slurred speech, seizures and difficulty in walking and talking. These problems can develop over many years and if not treated, the person dies. It is common to African continent.
Treatment and prevention
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The use of trypanotolerant breeds for livestock farming should be considered if the disease is widespread.
Fly control is another option but is difficult to implement.
The main approaches to controlling African trypanosomiasis are to reduce the reservoirs of infection and the presence of the tsetse fly. Screening of people at risk helps identify patients at an early stage. Diagnosis should be made as early as possible and before the advanced stage to avoid complicated, difficult and risky treatment procedures.
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- Manson, Patrick (1914). Tropical diseases : a manual of diseases of warm climates (5th ed.). New York: William Wood. OCLC 812165069.
- Daniels, Charles Wilberforce (1914). Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. New York. OCLC 810109334.
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- Maya JD, Cassels BK, Iturriaga-Vásquez P, et al. (2007). "Mode of action of natural and synthetic drugs against Trypanosoma cruzi and their interaction with the mammalian host". Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part a Mol. Integr. Physiol. 146 (4): 601–20. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.03.004. PMID 16626984.
- Carsten Wrenger, Isolmar Schettert, Eva Liebau (2013). "Oxidative stress in human infectious diseases – present and current knowledge about its druggability". Drug Development. InTech. doi:10.5772/53758.
- Animal Trypanosomosis reviewed and published by Wikivet.
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